By the end of this section, girlfriend will:Explain the paper definition in which the republic emerged from 1828 to 1848


In 1831, the twenty-five–year-old French noble Alexis de Tocqueville checked out the united States and Canada through a friend during a ten-month tour at the behest the the French monarchical government. Their official task to be to examine and also report top top the American jail system. Tocqueville completed his task but additionally published a seminal occupational on the democratic political institutions and character the American society called Democracy in America. Although the warned that the threats of the tyranny that the bulk if the did no respect minority rights, Tocqueville was especially impressed by the neighborhood self-rule, voluntary associations, and churches he uncovered that produced a healthy and balanced American civil society. Tocqueville checked out the united States during a time in i m sorry democracy was increasing, especially for white men, and when reformers—male, female, black, and white—were influenced to improve society with several ethical reforms (see the Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, 1835 Primary Source).

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The Presidential election of 1828

The presidential election of 1828 marked a high allude in the shift to a new, an ext democratic era in American politics. Leading duties were played by countless of the same characters already on the nationwide stage. President john Quincy Adams, sustained by his Secretary of State Henry Clay, ran versus war hero and also former city council Andrew Jackson, sustained by senator Martin valve Buren of brand-new York and also Vice President man C. Calhoun. The politics rivals struggled for power during a time of broadening democracy. In 1828, the choice of victor would remainder in the hand of the full populace of adult white men in every state, other than South Carolina and also Virginia, many thanks to the vast abolition the property restrictions on poll rights.

Adams failed come understand and exploit the new realities of autonomous politics in an er of universal male suffrage and greater politics participation, however Jackson and also Van Buren showed remarkably adept at developing a politics party. For example, Jackson supporters organized political parties and learned come mobilize voters on the neighborhood level. They additionally succeeded in winning the assistance of the renowned press. Van Buren, meanwhile, choreographed a powerful and reliable campaign versus Adams in Congress. Jackson’s nearly mythical condition as a popular hero assisted him to fend off an individual attacks, consisting of whispers about his violent temper and also the duels he had actually fought, and revelations that his wife had still to be legally married to another man once she wed Jackson in 1791 (this instance had been settled in 1794). Adams, in contrast, often tended to host grudges and also absorb slander fairly than deflect it. Jackson won a clear victory by 178 electoral votes come 83.

Jackson adopted the populist picture that swept him to office, and his inaugural ceremony symbolized the autonomous age. A White residence reception ended with his followers virtually sacking the White House and forcing the age-worn brand-new president to escape v a window. One disapproving observer listed that a large throng the well-wishers tramped v the White home with muddy boots and spilled their alcoholic drinks. The lot left only when it to be lured exterior with ice cream cream and alcohol. Return the nation had certainly seen public politics demonstrations before, both angry and triumphant, the venting of famous opinion currently permanently transformed the political process.


Although there is a little amount of chaos in this relenten of the White House throughout Jackson’s inauguration the does not present the devastation going on inside.

American Indians and also the weight of Presidential Power

The Jacksonians had not winner on image alone. Plan figured prominently in the 1828 election, far more than at any kind of time because the war of 1812. Jackson promised to lug stability come the country volatile economy. He also helped introduce the spoils system, which boosted his ability to carry out the program of what happened called the autonomous Party, together he dismissed office holders indigenous the previous federal government wholesale and placed party loyalists in office. Jackson’s management also operated through an authority previously lacking from government, firmly exercising federal and executive power, at times in outright conflict with the hallowed legacies of states’ rights he otherwise embraced.

American Indians at first bore the brunt of this raw practice of power. For nearly two hundred years, the native civilization of the southeastern United states had regulated to host their own versus European encroachment. However, they had actually lost their powerful British allies ~ the battle of 1812 and were significantly weakened. Moreover, through the treaty of ft Jackson in 1814, the United states had compelled the pliable young chiefs the the Creek (Muscogee) come cede 22 million acres in Alabama and Georgia. Before ascending come the White House, Jackson had battled in numerous battles against American Indians and also had presided end the 1817–1818 first Seminole War, which led to the addition of Florida. By the 1820s, the pressure on American indians to continue moving westward had actually become practically overwhelming. Whites cleared up in Alabama, Mississippi, and also Louisiana by the tens of thousands. The Cherokee, motivated by the Cherokee leader Sequoyah and members of various other tribes, attempted come accommodate themselves to white prominence by acquisition up white ways, including adopting a created language, schools, American farming methods, division of labor in between the sexes, American-style clothing, and Christianity, but to no avail. Most whites wanted not their friendship however their land, especially due to the fact that of the noodle boom arising in the Southwest.


(a) Cherokee leader Sequoyah occurred a syllabary the made reading and writing in the Cherokee language possible. Sequoyah’s invention enabled the Cherokee nation to produce a newspaper in their very own language the Cherokee Phoenix (b) This front web page of the Cherokee Phoenix dates from might 21, 1828. The paper continued until 1834 and was revived in the twentieth century.

As president, Jackson responded to push from southern farmers by securing i of the Indian removed Act, which he signed in may 1830. The removal Act allowed Jackson come eject American ind from your lands in the south-east in return because that lands west that the Mississippi. Although your acquiescence was framed together voluntary consent, the Indians, in effect, to be compelled come move. Because that this reason, the bill was fiercely debated in Congress, with numerous northerners (and even some southerners such as representative Davey Crockett) protest to the unjust treatment it allowed. However, your objections were directly overruled through southerners who wanted the Indians’ land and also passed the bill by ripe votes in the Senate and also only 6 in the house (see the Indian removed Act, 1830, and also Cherokee Chief man Ross’s Memorial and also Protest to Congress, 1836 Primary Source).

The Cherokee, meanwhile, attempted come resist initiatives by the state that Georgia to encroach upon their land, bring about two cases revolving approximately the inquiry of lack sovereignty being presented come the U.S. Supreme Court in the early on 1830s. In Cherokee nation v. Georgia (1831), the Court figured out that the Cherokee tribe lacked standing to sue together a foreign nation because it was a “domestic dependency nation” and declined to preeminence on the merits of the case, whereas in Worcester v. Georgia (1832), the Court ruled that just the federal government (not the states) had the power to regulate relations between a aboriginal Indian nation and a U.S. State and, therefore, Georgia had no authority in Indian affairs. However, Georgia refused to monitor the stimulate of the Court or stop settlers from acquisition land.

At the very same time, chairman Jackson likewise sought come implement his very own powers under the Indian remove Act to compel the American indians to move. Native 1831 to 1838, some sixty thousand civilization of what early american settlers named the “Five civilized Tribes” (Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and also Seminole) were required off the building they held, in direct violation of past treaties, and were pushed throughout the Mississippi. White charlatans robbed and persecuted castle in the process, and also their compelled winter treks resulted in thousands the deaths. The culmination of the process came with the ejection of the Cherokee from their lands east of the Mississippi and along the 1838 trail of Tears (see The trace of Tears Narrative). The figure of these human being west the the Mississippi had a disruptive influence among the tribes of the region, fostering conflict that would certainly persist till they, too, ended up being victims that American from the west expansion.

Tariffs and also the national Bank

President Jackson ongoing to broaden federal and also executive power in a situation precipitated once he and many north members of congress sought come regulate abroad trade and protect U.S. Industry. In 1828, Henry Clay assumed responsibility for guiding v Congress a protectionist tariff, the so-called Tariff the Abominations, with the support of President man Quincy Adams, till Martin van Buren took charge and also sought to usage the tariff bill to appeal come mid-Atlantic Jacksonian voters. The tariff to be supposedly designed to counteract British economic dominance by placing high tariffs top top imports indigenous that nation as a way to defend (mostly northern) manufactured products from foreign competition. Many southern leaders, however, suspected the measure was a clever attempt to harm the South and also undermine the school of slavery. Vice president Calhoun said the tariff would provoke retaliatory brothers tariffs ~ above American cotton imports indigenous the South, which fed the brother mills in Lancashire. Calhoun had reversed his previously support that tariffs as a maker for integrating a national, self-sufficient economy, rather adopting what was politically expedient come win with Jackson. Due to the fact that the U.S. Cotton industry and the device of slavery were support dependent, the results of the tariff could be disastrous for southerly planters.

In 1828, Calhoun anonymously published Exposition and Protest, in i m sorry he suggested that the Union was a compact of states that could individually decide on the constitutionality that federal regulations and nullify them (see the Is the Concurrent bulk Theory Faithful come the Ideals of the Constitution? Point-Counterpoint and also the John C. Calhoun, South Carolina Exposition and Protest, 1828 Primary Source). (These ideas had their roots in cutting board Jefferson’s Kentucky Resolution the 1798.) In November 1832, incited in component by Calhoun, the government of south Carolina, in convention, proclaimed the tariff nullified and also unenforceable in ~ its borders due to the fact that it was unconstitutional, and also the state invoked the rule of state sovereignty in assistance of its appropriate to execute so. Regardless of the widespread well-known support that enjoyed throughout the South and his general sympathy for low tariffs, Jackson denounced nullification as treasonous and, in in march 1833, he signed a force Bill that Congress had passed authorizing military activity against south Carolina (see The Nullification Crisis Narrative). The very same day the force Bill to be signed, councilor Henry Clay the Kentucky aided defuse the situation by leading Congress to take on a weaken tariff that greatly decreased the tariff duties and also induced Calhoun to ago off. Yet a criterion had been set that would certainly act itself out in complete thirty years later when the south seceded indigenous the Union. A southern Carolina convention met a couple of days later and repealed that tariff nullification as well as the pressure Act.

The presidential election project of 1832 was dealt with in the context of Jackson’s cultivation opposition come the second Bank the the unified States, a view that more enlarged his executive strength by working out his veto power. Conference had chartered the second Bank in 1816, and the can be fried Court asserted it constitution in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819). The bank had a twenty-year charter that was early for renewal in 1836. Senators Henry Clay and also Daniel Webster of Massachusetts worked with bank president Nicholas Biddle come renew the charter early and also make the an issue in the presidential election of 1832, especially due to the fact that Clay was running for president. Congress passed the recharter bill and sent it to the chairman to sign.

On July 10, 1832, however, Jackson vetoed it. (See the Andrew Jackson’s Veto of the national Bank Decision allude and the Andrew Jackson, financial institution Veto Message, 1832 Primary Source). He suggested that the financial institution was unconstitutional, regulated by speculators and foreign interests, and damaging come western and southern farmers. In ~ the exact same time, Jackson refuse to endorse Calhoun’s extension as angry president, partly due to the fact that of your differing see on the bank, and also Calhoun assumed the senate chair vacated through Robert Hayne who became governor of southern Carolina. That was previous Secretary that State Martin van Buren who ultimately secured the autonomous Party’s nomination in Calhoun’s place.

Jackson’s overwhelming election victory versus National Republican candidate Henry Clay allowed him to focus on his campaign to destroy the Bank, which he and his supporters perceived as an naturally corrupt device of huge moneyed understanding in and also out the government. Appointing the cooperative Roger Taney together secretary the the treasury (after replacing two less malleable treasury secretaries), Jackson end depositing federal government funds in the bank of the unified States, rather diverting them come a series of so-called pet banks. Financial institution president Nicholas Biddle fought Jackson vociferously, however after year of controversy in Congress and economic destabilization, the Bank’s charter expired in 1836.


This 1833 lithograph entitled The Downfall of Mother bank applauds Jackson’s order because that the remove of federal funds native the financial institution of the unified States. Jackson holds increase an “Order for the removed of the general public Money.” Nicholas Biddle (depicted through devil’s horns) and also his pendant scatter together the financial institution building falls roughly them.

The fall of the bank of the united States corresponded with another election year in 1836. Opposition to Jackson had actually converged roughly his supposedly royal presidency, including his free use that the presidential veto, which showed up to threaten the strength of Congress. His backbiting now dubbed him King Andrew I, in ironic comparison with the democratic excitement that had actually accompanied his early entry right into office. Jackson, castle argued, had actually contradicted the anti-aristocratic ideals of Jeffersonian America.


In this famous 1832 political cartoon licensed has been granted “King Andrew the very first ” by an unknown artist chairman Jackson is pull on in royal garb and also holds a veto article in his hand if the structure lies in tatters at his feet.

Remnants the the nationwide Republican Party and also the smaller sized Anti-Masonic Party linked with Calhoun’s southerly supporters and others to kind the Whig Party, therefore named since of that association through seventeenth- and also eighteenth-century English anti-royalists. However, the Whigs stayed a diffuse company in 1836. Their slate of candidates, led by william Henry Harrison, failed come muster the stamin to defeat Jackson’s chosen successor, Martin van Buren.

Van Buren and also the panic of 1837

A talented politician once well-known as the “Little Magician,” Martin valve Buren to be given tiny chance to develop a successful presidency. Quickly after he gotten in office, the national economy staggered under the so-called panic of 1837. This catastrophe source in the collapse of a soil bubble and also the succeeding failure of plenty of of the banks to i beg your pardon Jackson had actually transferred funds when destined for the bank of the unified States. In response, valve Buren established an independent treasury and also cut federal government expenditures, yet to tiny avail—the economy entered a deep recession. This setback, combined with one ongoing and expensive military project to force the Seminole Indians the end of Florida and condemnations of valve Buren’s accused extravagant White home lifestyle, doomed his chances for reelection in 1840.

Whig candidate william Henry Harrison had first won fame together a general in the battle of 1812. Even though his father was a signer that the declaration of Independence, this kid of the Virginia aristocracy secured election in 1840 together a “hard cider” and also “log cabin” man representative of common Americans. He dropped ill and died only 4 weeks right into his presidency, however, and was changed by angry President john Tyler, likewise known together “His Accidency.” back an anti-Jacksonian, Tyler refused to align himself v the Whigs, that then feeling betrayed and also threw him out of the party. By the choice of 1844, in which Democrat James K. Polk defeated Whig Henry Clay in Clay’s final bid for the presidency, the United says had worked out firmly into a two-party system. The Democrats generally supported restricted federal power, states’ rights, and slavery and its expansion, and also opposed safety tariffs and also federal security on roads and also canals (“internal improvements”). The Whigs normally supported better expansive commonwealth powers and economic nationalism that the American System, if the party separation over slavery, with countless of its north members opposing the westward development of slavery.

Manifest Destiny: from the west Expansion

Americans’ rapid westward migration was transforming the really nature that the united States. Structure on the migration that had started in earnest after the battle of 1812, the Indian removals the the 1830s had cleared the method for more westward development in the South, when the former Louisiana purchase territories were promptly swallowed up by homesteaders. The term “Manifest Destiny,” which gone into the language in the mid-1840s, argued the joined States had a divinely appointed mission to broaden westward come the shores of the Pacific Ocean versus any opposition. However this idea of destiny sustained another, divisive debate: together the nation expanded, would enslavement too?

The very first new phase in what would soon come to be a tidal wave of western development centered roughly Mexico and the region of Texas. ~ winning independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico enticed white negotiation in this region, which was lived in by the Comanches. At first, Mexico welcomed American settlers if they came to be Mexican citizens, convert to Catholicism, and did not bring their slaves. Nine years later, due to the fact that these stipulations were not being followed, the Mexican federal government outlawed more immigration native the united States, yet to small effect. After ~ a war for freedom in 1835–1836 that started with the Mexican record of a little Texan garrison at the Alamo and also ended v the defeat and capture of mexico president Antonio López de Santa Anna, white settlers created the elevation Republic of Texas (see the Sam Houston and also Texas Independence Narrative).


This 1903 paint by Robert Jenkins Onderdonk depicts a see of the defenders the the Alamo as making a heroic last stand. Davy Crockett the well known frontiersman and also politician that joined the Texans at the Alamo is pull on in buckskin and using his rifle together a club. There are conflicting accounts as to whether Crockett died in a last stand or surrendered and was executed. How does this painting depict Manifest Destiny and also the American West?

Over the adhering to years, Texans and also southern political leaders campaigned stridently because that the addition of Texas come the joined States. The Jackson and also Van Buren managements had hesitated come comply due to the fact that of the sectional and political dispute it would certainly produce, yet Tyler was sympathetic. He pushed the concern in Congress regardless of opposition from man Quincy Adams, then serving in the home of Representatives, and also resistance by various other northerners and Whigs in Congress that saw annexation as a pretext for expanding slavery. In one of his last acts together president, Tyler thrust a joint resolution with Congress and signed the bill making Texas standard for admission to the United says as a territory and also then as a state, which it became in December 1845. Texan statehood came to be a flashpoint resulting in the Mexican-American war of 1846–1848 that pushed the borders of the United claims to California.

Social and spiritual Movements in the Second good Awakening

Even together the united States broadened outward, and inwardly debated the moral ramifications of the growing system the slavery, plenty of of its world experienced a religious revival in what has involved be dubbed the Second an excellent Awakening. Vice versa, eighteenth-century Calvinists had emphasized the inability of humans to get over sin ~ above their own accounts, a brand-new order of preachers now said the opposite, explain that civilization could reject and also overcome sin with direct activity (see the Jedediah Burchard, Revivalist Sermon, 1835 Primary Source).

Public missionaries of the Second great Awakening preached emotionally and worked tirelessly come foster true repentance and conversion in dramatic public encounters dubbed revivals. The bear or expansion of several spiritual denominations attach the Second great Awakening, specifically including Baptists and also Methodists, whose preachers provided these methods for conversion. In 1830, at the period of 24 years, Joseph Smith published the Book the Mormon and created the Church that Jesus Christ the Latter-Day Saints in brand-new York (see The Mormon Trail Narrative).

Some movements took the ideals that the Second an excellent Awakening also further through attempting to develop utopian neighborhoods that would herald a brand-new Jerusalem that peace and brotherhood. One of these was the Oneida Community, which man Humphrey Noyes founded in 1848 in brand-new York. His followers, recognized as Perfectionists, ultimately spread to other areas of the joined States, especially brand-new England, however their often-unconventional see on marriage and also morality infuriated the mainstream communities amid which they settled.


The Oneida neighborhood practiced “complex marital relationship ” an institution in i m sorry every man was married come every woman and also vice versa. Man Humphrey Noyes displayed in an 1896 image motivated this practice since he thought that God did no desire monogamy.

Other utopian communities found inspiration in the principles of transcendentalism. Illustration upon european Romanticism, the transcendentalists argued for the an essential goodness of human being nature and also argued that complimentary thought and also life live independence of mainstream society could carry individuals to higher states the being. The community of Brook farm in Massachusetts, founded in 1841 by previous Unitarian minister George Ripley, through the assistance of males like authors Nathaniel Hawthorne and Charles A. Dana, seek to lug this concept to fruition v communal living that promoted the “thinking worker.” Like plenty of other utopian or neo-utopian communities, however, Brook farm folded after less than a te in operation.

Inspired by the Second great Awakening, Revolutionary ethics of equality, and also Enlightenment humanitarianism, antebellum reversal sought to transform society by turning it far from sin and also laying the foundations for a much better or even utopian future. Individuals, often women, operated together in spontaneous organizations committed to these reform efforts, which source locally yet grew to regional and wider importance and also eventually swayed nationwide policy. Although that violated the social share of “separate spheres” for ladies to get in into politics and public life, the ethical nature the antebellum reform gave women the possibility to an obstacle this limit on the grounds that bettering the lives of others.

Growing Resistance come Slavery

The many extreme examples of resistance to enslavement occurred among African Americans. In 1829, complimentary black David Walker released his Appeal to the fancy Citizens the the World, a radical pamphlet warning whites that blacks would revolt if the enslaved were not freed (see the David Walker, “An Appeal come the Coloured citizens of the World,” 1829 Primary Source). He wrote, “your devastation is at hand, and will it is in speedily consummated uneven you REPENT.” On respectable 22 and 23, 1831, Nat Turner’s Rebellion erupted in southeastern Virginia. Nat Turner to be guided through his interpretation of biblical and spiritual ideals. He believed he had a magnificent mission of exacting vengeance versus slaveholders and ushering in a new age the liberty. Around sixty enslaved and cost-free blacks in Southampton County travel through several plantations and murdered and also decapitated almost sixty white inhabitants, consisting of forty-six women and children. White mobs and also militia troops retaliated by massacring much more than one hundred enslaved and free blacks, several of whom go not even participate in the rebellion. Turner eluded record for number of weeks till he was caught, tried, and also hanged. The episode motivated an internal controversy over slavery and emancipation in Virginia yet mostly result in increases in slave patrols, tighter controls end the movement and also meetings that enslaved persons, and also restrictions on free blacks (see the Nat Turner’s Rebellion Narrative).

The Second great Awakening, knowledge ideas and the ideals that the explanation of self-reliance energized abolitionists who functioned to end slavery. They supplied the same means as other social reformers, consisting of voluntary organizations, religiously influenced emotional preaching, and also aggressive proselytism to academy change. Here, too, ladies played a top role.

By this time, enslavement had end up being a national concern of increasing importance, and one that intimidated to destabilize the country even come the point of war. In 1831, william Lloyd Garrison helped stimulate the increase of the abolitionist motion by launching a newspaper dubbed the Liberator, demanding the instant emancipation that enslaved persons (reversing his previous assistance of steady emancipation), and also denouncing slavery as a nationwide sin (see the William Lloyd Garrison’s War versus Slavery Narrative). He suggested the Constitution to be a “covenant v death and also an agreement with Hell” and also opposed abolitionists participating in politics. In 1833, Garrison, wealthy brand-new York philanthropists Arthur and also Lewis Tappan, Wendell Phillips, and other abolitionist reformers started the American Anti-Slavery society in new York.

Abolitionists created hundreds the antislavery societies, traveled with the North and also Midwest transporting speeches against slavery, petitioned Congress for an finish to slavery, and wrote and distributed antislavery tracts in the North and also South. Female abolitionists additionally joined the lecture circuit, composed antislavery tracts, and also started mrs antislavery societies. Renowned female abolitionist speaker included brand-new England Quaker reversal Lucretia Mott and Abby Kelley, and the southern Carolina sisters Angelina and Sarah Grimké, who relocated north. Many northerners to be shocked by this female abolitionist speakers addressing combined crowds and hurled objects at them or violent chased them turn off stages. Mott and also Kelley later on supported women’s suffrage and also black suffrage (see the Sarah M. Grimké, letters on the Equality of the Sexes and also Condition of Women, 1837 Primary Source).

African americans were influential abolitionists, and also those previous enslaved persons who spoke versus the ills of enslavement did so v special authority that made Garrison and others welcome them right into the movement. Harriet Tubman had escaped indigenous slavery and also courageously made at least nineteen trips come the south to liberate enslaved persons. She was a vital leader in the secret Railroad, a network of human being who assisted runaway enslaved civilization escape through the north to freedom. Frederick Douglass had actually escaped from slavery to become a influential speaker, author of 3 autobiographies explicate his experiences, and publisher the the abolitionist newspaper North Star. That later broke with Garrison and also read the Constitution as an antislavery document. Sojourner truth was an antislavery activist who supported abolitionism and also women’s rights in she speeches, the most famed of which was “Ain’t ns a Woman?” (see the Frederick Douglass’s route to Freedom Narrative and the Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life the Frederick Douglass, 1845 Primary Source).

All abolitionists concurred that enslavement was a ethical evil that needed to be outlawed, but there to be a selection of opinion regarding whether it need to happen instantly or gradually. Abolitionism furious angry and sometimes violent reaction indigenous southern and also even north defenders of a device they thought about integral to the American way of life. Your disdain because that female authorized in abolitionism further promoted feelings the resentment.

Northern mobs often reacted violent to the incendiary message and also beat increase or hurled rocks at male and also female abolitionist speakers. Top top November 7, 1837, one Illinois mob damaged the presses of abolitionist Elijah Lovejoy and murdered him. In 1835, the American Anti-Slavery culture began mailing abolitionist tracts to prominent churchmen and government officials across the South. After upset mobs shed a consignment the abolitionist literature on the docks of Charleston, the Postmaster basic ruled, with President Jackson’s support, that states had actually the best to deny transport of even federal mail.


This timber engraving that unknown day depicts a mob burning abolitionist Elijah Lovejoy’s building.

At the same time, abolitionists sent thousands that antislavery petitions to congress which infuriated southern representatives and took up an enhancing proportion of legislature time. On may 26 1836 southerly Congressmen prospered in their initiatives to gain the house of to represent to present a “gag dominance ” through which all antislavery petitions would certainly be tabled automatically and also ignored. John Quincy Adams automatically denounced the rule as unconstitutional in Congress however it stayed in place until after year of marketing he succeeded in having it rescinded in 1844 (see the john Quincy Adams and also the Gag preeminence Decision Point).

Perhaps Adams’s many satisfying an individual achievement though took ar in the Amistad case. In the summer the 1839, a cargo of West africans who had been sold as servants in Havana Cuba revolted ~ above the servant ship Amistad killing the captain and crew and demanding to be went back to Africa. Subsequently recorded by a U.S. Ship and also imprisoned in Connecticut the enslaved men became the emphasis of a national and international conflict over their fate the went every the means to the U.S. Can be fried Court. In January 1841 Adams take it the case as a lawyer and delivered one impassioned nine-hour speech that convinced the judge to cost-free the thirty surviving slaves and return them come Africa (see the man Quincy Adams and also the Amistad Narrative).

Social Reforms and Suffrage

Antebellum reformers additionally targeted the inhumane problems in prisons and asylums, organizations that concentrated on incarceration and also punishment fairly than rehabilitation. Horrified reversal such as Samuel Gridley Howe and also Dorothea Dix campaigned because that changes, including opportunities for education, recreation, and spiritual instruction because that inmates. Through their efforts, specifically in new England, several version prisons and asylums were built (see the Dorothea Dix, Memorial come the regulation of Massachusetts, 1843 Primary Source).

The drive for temperance (abstinence from alcohol) was an additional reforming activity that was created locally, frequently on the spiritual principles that the Second an excellent Awakening. Moreover, the mean adult consumed much more than seven gallons of liquor annually, and also some guys victimized their family members by drinking all their earnings away or abusing your wives and children. Reformers also supported temperance since they were influenced by xenophobia and also associated hefty drinking v German and Irish immigrants in urban areas. The earliest societies for the promotion of abstinence native alcohol appeared in new England towards the start of the nineteenth century, but their efforts increased in the 1830s, whereby time there were thousands of neighborhood temperance societies throughout the joined States, and also the nationwide American society for the promo of Temperance. Frequently working in tandem through Methodist and other preachers who suggested that people could choose to turn away from sin, temperance advocates held public events to convince much more than one million adherents to abstain indigenous alcohol and drink just water. Through the 1840s, they had enacted many prohibition ordinances, indigenous the ar to the state level.

These burgeoning activities for windy welfare synchronized with a renewed interest in public education. George Washington, believing the an educated electorate to be a an essential underpinning that American democracy, had listed financial support to exclusive educational foundations. Thomas Jefferson had even proposed a mechanism of government-funded public education and learning in Virginia. In 1837–1838, Secretary Horace Mann of the Massachusetts board of education and learning succeeded in cultivating the typical public school movement. By creating typical public colleges funded from regional taxes, Mann and his followers throughout the unified States thought they can establish a device of universal secular education and learning that would certainly not just buttress the political system but help ensure social harmony. Although this vision for national education was never totally realized, that long-term results were transformative.


Horace Mann displayed in a daguerreotype from about 1850 believed that boosting public education and learning would carry wide-ranging benefits because society would be more prosperous and benign.

A vast movement for women’s suffrage arised out the women’s diligent initiatives in various other antebellum reform movements. Females reformers to be banned native participating in the 1840 world Anti-Slavery Convention in London; they started advocating because that equal civil liberties for women. Abolitionist leader Lucretia Mott and also Elizabeth Cady Stanton initiated the national process by convening the first women’s civil liberties convention in the joined States, hosted in Seneca Falls, new York, in July 1848. Some 2 hundred women attended the convention’s first day; ~ above the following day, men, including abolitionist symbol Frederick Douglass, attend and linked their reasons into one project to transform the ar of ladies in U.S. Society. In their Declaration that Sentiments and Resolutions (commonly called the “Declaration of Sentiments”), the convention’s attendees appealed come the natural and civil civil liberties of females by drawing close parallels to the explanation of self-reliance (see the Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the struggle for Women’s Suffrage Narrative).


(a) Lucretia Mott and also (b) Elizabeth Cady Stanton were pioneers in women’s rights initiatives in the United states writing the declaration of Sentiments and starting a collection of women’s rights conventions.

The Seneca drops Convention the 1848 in part ways might be viewed as a culmination that the democratization of politics that symbolically began with the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828. But the road ahead continued to be unclear. Back the American political mechanism had resolved into a two-party mechanism that endures come this day, from the west expansion and conflict with American Indians and also possibly international powers, combined with rapidly escalating tensions over public morality, renowned rights, and also especially the college of slavery, progressively threatened come tear the United claims apart.


By 1828 suffrage expanded to include much more white men and reforms—male woman black and also white—were motivated to enhance society. The country ongoing to grow as go sectional departments within the republic.

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Review Questions

1. Andrew Jackson defeated incumbent president john Quincy Adams in the choice of 1828 primarily because of

Adams’s opposition come slaveryJackson’s decision to eliminate American IndiansAdams’s viewed weakness in foreign relationsthe Jackson campaign’s focus on getting to a broad electorate

2. The major outcome of the Nullification dilemm was to

bring the United says and an excellent Britain to the suggest of warundermine public assistance for Andrew Jacksonestablish a precedent for state secessionprovoke the panic of 1837

3. Whigs denounced Jackson together King Andrew I because of

his sympathy for great Britainhis extravagant lifestylehis support for hereditary rulehis growth and free use the presidential powers

4. I m sorry of the adhering to was not a prime focus of arranged antebellum revolutionary movements?

TemperanceAmerican Indian rightsPrison reformAbolition that slavery

5. All the complying with were the roots of major crises in the Jackson management except

the tariff issuethe growth of suffragethe national bankthe legal rights of American Indians

6. Chairman Andrew Jackson applied his check out of the appropriate use that federal power by acting to weaken

the nationwide bankthe spoils systemthe veto powerhigh safety tariffs.

7. Which of this was no a an outcome of the Indian Removal act of 1830?

The can be fried Court judgment in Worcester v. GeorgiaThe can be fried Court judgment in Cherokee country v. GeorgiaThe trail of TearsThe beginning of the Frontier Wars

8. What was the key idea of john C. Calhoun’s Exposition and Protest published in 1828?

That states had the appropriate to explain a federal law unconstitutionalThat the south was against the plans of President john Quincy AdamsThat southern Carolina wanted to create its very own tariff policyThat States’ legal rights were subordinate to federal policy

9. Exposition and Protest organized the very same premise as which document?

The write-ups of Confederation of 1781The Kentucky Resolutions of 1799The Tariff that 1816The Monroe doctrine of 1823

10. The most far-reaching issue that the election of 1832 was

the tariff issuethe rights of American Indianswomen’s suffragethe national bank

11. Which of the following actions did chairman Andrew Jackson take regarding the bank of the united States?

Agreed with Nicholas Biddle’s argument in favor of the bankVetoed the re-chartering the the financial institution in 1832Left any major decision about the financial institution to his follower Martin valve BurenImmediately closeup of the door the national bank

12. The Whig Party most most likely won the election of 1840 because of

its wholesale assistance of the development of slavery west that the Mississippi Riverthe decreasing popularity the Martin valve Buren after ~ the scare of 1837the Whigs’ ideology that smaller federal government equals more effective governmentthe popular of wilhelm Henry Harrison together an anti-Jacksonian

13. The desire to perform which of the following ideal describes the ide of Manifest Destiny in the 1840s?

Expand American are from the Atlantic come the Pacific OceanExtend U.S. Economic control throughout the AmericasImplement immediate abolition throughout all existing states and also territoriesExtend the influence of protestant Christianity right into the territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase

14. The greatest affect of the Mexican battle of 1846–1848 to be that

the unified States obtained a far-ranging amount of territory in its search to expand to the Pacificabolitionism spread throughout the North and Southslavery was outlawed in the brand-new territoriesTexas became a state in ~ the conclusion the the fighting

15. The Second great Awakening affected all the following except

the development of “perfectionist” societies like the Oneida Communitythe growth of new religious sects prefer the Mormonssupport for public education and learning for allthe spread out of American democratic ideals also if it intended war

16. The reform motion stemming indigenous the Second good Awakening that resulted in the most debate in the United states was

public education and learning for allrights for womenabolitionismutopianism

17. The introduction of the “gag rule” in conference meant

petitions supporting the abolition of slavery would no be presented on the floor the Congressit was unlawful to comment on the tariff problem in Congressonly legislation that sustained the development of slavery might be questioned in Congressa statements of war was not to be disputed in Congress

18. The Seneca falls Convention in 1848 was known for a paper its attendees authorize in support of

nationwide temperancepublic education for allequal legal rights for indigenous Americansrights because that women

Free solution Questions

Explain just how the Second good Awakening and also antebellum society reform activities influenced and reinforced each other.Explain exactly how the election of 1828 signaled a change in U.S. Nationwide politics.Explain why settlers moved to Texas during the 1820s and into the 1830s and how this migration influenced the united States.Explain how the function of women affected social revolutionary in the unified States during the 1830s and also 1840s.

AP practice Questions


King Andrew the very first created by one unknown artist c. 1833.

Refer to the picture provided.

1. In the political cartoon the on purpose of the artist is to

praise chairman Jackson because that his strong and reliable leadership if in officesupport chairman Jackson’s use of the veto come “protect the common man”illustrate id that chairman Jackson abused his strength as presidentpropose that Jackson have to serve together president because that life

2. World who agree through the sentiments expressed in the politics cartoon would certainly most most likely support

the spread out of slavery right into the western territoriesan boost in the tariff ratesthe protection of American ind from federal government interferencethe formation of the Whig Party


Westward Ho through Emanuel Leutze 1861.

Refer come the pictures provided.

3. The paintings reflect the sentiments that what American idea?

Overseas expansionJacksonian democracyManifest DestinyNullification

4. The sentiments expressed in the paintings share usual values with which group?

Camp meeting speakers that the Second great AwakeningMembers that the young of Liberty in the late colonial EraBritish colonists who protest the imperial Proclamation that 1763Anti-Masonic Movement

Primary Sources

Cain william E. William Lloyd Garrison and the Fight against Slavery: Selections native The Liberator. Boston: Bedford books 1994.

Greenberg Amy S. Ed. Manifest Destiny and American territorial Expansion: A Brief history with Documents. Boston: Bedford publications 2017.

Greenberg Kenneth S. Ed. The Confessions the Nat Turner. Boston: Bedford publications 2016.

Jackson Andrew. “President Andrew Jackson’s Veto Message regarding the bank of the joined States; July 10, 1832.” Yale law School. Https://

Jacobs Harriet. Incidents in the Life the a servant Girl. Brand-new York: W.W. Norton 2018.

Purdue Theda ed. The Cherokee Removal: A Brief background with Documents. Boston: Bedford books 2016

Sklar Kathryn Kish ed. Women’s rights Emerges within the Anti-Slavery motion 1830-1870: A Short history with Documents. Boston: Bedford publications 2019.

“South Carolina Ordinance that Nullification November 24, 1832.”

Tocqueville Alexis. Democracy in America. Edited by Harvey C. Mansfield and Delba Winthrop. Chicago: college of Chicago push 2002.

Walker David. “Walker’s very nice one in 4 Articles; along with a Preamble come the Coloured citizen of the World however in specific and an extremely Expressly to Those the the United states of America created in Boston State of Massachusetts September 28, 1829: electronic Edition.” university of phibìc Carolina in ~ Chapel Hill. Https://

Suggested Resources

Brands H.W. Heirs of the Founders: The epos Rivalry of Henry Clay man Calhoun and Daniel Webster the 2nd Generation that American Giants. New York: Doubleday 2018.

Ehle John. Trail of Tears: The Rise and also Fall of the Cherokee Nation. New York: Doubleday 1989.

Garraty john A. And also Eric Foner. The Reader’s Companion to American History. New York: house Mifflin 1991.

Ginzberg Lori D. Women in Antebellum Reform. New York: Wiley 2000.

Howe Daniel Walker. What on foot God Wrought: The change of America 1815-1848. New York: Oxford University push 2007.

McMillen Sally. Seneca Falls and also the beginnings of the Women’s legal rights Movement. Oxford UK: Oxford University push 2009.

Meacham Jon D. American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House. Brand-new York: Random home 2008.

Mintz Steven. Moralists and Modernizers: America’s Pre-Civil war Reformers. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University push 1995.

Peterson Merrill D. The an excellent Triumvirate: Webster Clay and also Calhoun. Brand-new York: Oxford University push 1988.

Ratcliffe Donald J. Jacksonian America 1815-48. London: Longmans 1994.

Rediker Marcus. The Amistad Rebellion: an Atlantic Odyssey the Slavery and also Freedom. New York: Verso 2013.

Remini Robert. Andrew Jackson and also the bank War. Brand-new York: W.W. Norton 1967.

Wallace Anthony F.C. The long Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and also the Indians. Brand-new York: Hill and also Wang 1993.

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Walter Ronald G. American reversal 1815-1860. New York: Hill and Wang 1978.

Wellman Judith. The roadway to Seneca Falls: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and also the an initial Woman’s legal rights Convention. Urbana IL: college of Illinois push 2004