COVID-19: Obesity and also Excess Weight rise Severe disease Risk; Racial and Ethnic Disparities Persist


Body mass index (BMI) is a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. BMI is one inexpensive and also easy screening technique for weight category—underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and also obesity.

You are watching: Select the true statement about standards for weights and measures

BMI does no measure body fat directly, but BMI is moderately correlated with more direct procedures of human body fat 1,2,3. Furthermore, BMI shows up to be as strongly associated with miscellaneous metabolic and condition outcome as space these much more direct procedures of body fatness4,5,6,7,8,9.

exactly how is BMI used?

BMI have the right to be a screening tool, yet it does no diagnose the body fatness or health and wellness of one individual. To recognize if BMI is a health risk, a healthcare provider performs further assessments. Such assessments include skinfold thickness measurements, evaluations that diet, physical activity, and family history10.

What space the BMI patterns for adult in the unified States?

The prevalence of adult BMI higher than or equal to 30 kg/m2 (obese status) has greatly increased because the 1970s. Recently, however, this trend has leveled off, except for larger women. Weight problems has ongoing to rise in adult women that are age 60 years and older.

To learn more about the patterns of adult obesity, visit Adult weight problems Facts.

Why is BMI provided to measure overweight and obesity?

Because calculation requires only height and weight, BMI is an inexpensive and easy tool. To see the formula based upon either kilograms and also meters or pounds and also inches, visit just how is BMI calculated?

What space other means to assess excess body fatness besides BMI?

Other approaches to measure body fatness incorporate skinfold thickness dimensions (with calipers), underwater weighing, bioelectrical impedance, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and isotope dilution 1,2,3. However, these techniques are not always readily available, and they space either high value or must be conducted by extremely trained personnel. Furthermore, plenty of of this methods have the right to be an overwhelming to standardize throughout observers or machines, complicating comparisons across studies and also time periods.

just how is BMI calculated?

BMI is calculation the same method for both adults and also children. The calculation is based upon the adhering to formulas:

BMI is calculated the same means for both adults and also children. The calculation is based on the complying with formulas:Measurement UnitsFormula and also CalculationKilograms and meters (or centimeters)Pounds and inches
Formula: weight (kg) / 2

With the metric system, the formula for BMI is load in kilograms divided by elevation in meters squared. Because height is frequently measured in centimeters, divide height in centimeters by 100 to obtain height in meters.

Example: load = 68 kg, elevation = 165 cm (1.65 m)Calculation: 68 ÷ (1.65)2 = 24.98

Formula: load (lb) / 2 x 703

Calculate BMI by separating weight in pounds (lbs) by elevation in customs (in) squared and also multiplying by a conversion factor of 703.

Example: weight = 150 lbs, height = 5’5″ (65″)Calculation: <150 ÷ (65)2> x 703 = 24.96

just how is BMI interpreted for adults?

For adults 20 years old and older, BMI is construed using standard weight condition categories. These categories room the exact same for men and also women of all body species and ages.

The traditional weight status categories connected with BMI arrays for adults are presented in the following table.BMIWeight Status
Below 18.5Underweight
18.5 – 24.9Healthy Weight
25.0 – 29.9Overweight
30.0 and also AboveObesity

For example, here are the load ranges, the equivalent BMI ranges, and also the weight condition categories because that a person who is 5′ 9″.

For example, below are the load ranges, the matching BMI ranges, and the weight condition categories for a human being who is 5′ 9″.HeightWeight RangeBMIWeight Status
5′ 9″124 lbs or lessBelow 18.5Underweight
125 lbs come 168 lbs18.5 come 24.9Healthy Weight
169 lbs to 202 lbs25.0 to 29.9Overweight
203 lbs or more30 or higherObesity

For children and also teens, the translate of BMI counts upon age and sex. For more information around interpretation because that children and teens, read – What is a BMI percentile and how is the interpreted?

Is BMI construed the same means for children and teens as it is because that adults?

BMI is interpreted differently for children and also teens, even though that is calculated using the very same formula together adult BMI. Children and teen’s BMI must be age and also sex-specific since the lot of human body fat alters with age and the quantity of human body fat differs between girls and also boys. The BMI-for-age growth charts take right into account these differences and also visually display BMI together a percentile ranking. This percentiles were figured out using representative data the the U.S. Populace of 2- come 19-year-olds that was built up in various surveys indigenous 1963-65 to 1988-9411.

Obesity among 2- to 19-year-olds is characterized as a BMI in ~ or above the 95th percentile of kids of the very same age and sex in this 1963 to 1994 recommendation population. For example, a 10-year-old boy of average elevation (56 inches) that weighs 102 pounds would have a BMI that 22.9 kg/m2. This would ar the boy in the 95th percentile for BMI – definition that his BMI is greater than that of 95% of likewise aged guys in this reference population – and also he would be thought about to have obesity.

For an ext information and also to access the growth Charts

For adults, the translate of BMI walk not depend on sex or age. Read an ext about interpreting adult BMI.

How good is BMI as an indicator of body fatness?

The correlation between the BMI and also body fatness is fairly strong1,2,3,7, yet even if two people have the very same BMI, your level of human body fatness may differ12.

In general,

At the very same BMI, women tend to have more body fat than men.At the exact same BMI, Blacks have actually less body fat than perform Whites13,14, and Asians have much more body fat than do Whites15.At the exact same BMI, larger people, ~ above average, tend to have much more body fat 보다 younger adults.At the very same BMI, athletes have actually less human body fat than carry out non-athletes.

The accuracy the BMI together an indicator of body fatness likewise appears to be higher in persons with greater levels that BMI and also body fatness16. While, a human being with a really high BMI (e.g., 35 kg/m2) is really likely to have actually high body fat, a fairly high BMI deserve to be the results of one of two people high human body fat or high lean body mass (muscle and also bone). A trained health care provider must perform proper health assessments to advice an individual’s wellness status and also risks.

If an athlete or other person with a many muscle has actually a BMI end 25, is that human still taken into consideration to be overweight?

According to the BMI weight standing categories, anyone through a BMI between 25 and also 29.9 would certainly be classified together overweight and also anyone v a BMI end 30 would certainly be share as having actually obesity.

However, athletes may have a high BMI due to the fact that of raised muscularity fairly than raised body fatness. In general, a person who has actually a high BMI is most likely to have actually body fatness and would be thought about to it is in overweight or obese, yet this may not apply to athletes. A trained health care provider have to perform proper health assessments to evaluate an individual’s health status and risks.

What are the health after-effects of obesity for adults?

People who have actually obesity room at enhanced risk for numerous diseases and also health conditions, consisting of the following: 10, 17, 18

All-causes of death (mortality)High blood push (hypertension)High LDL cholesterol, short HDL cholesterol, or high level of triglycerides (dyslipidemia)Type 2 diabetesCoronary heart diseaseStrokeGallbladder diseaseOsteoarthritis (a break down of cartilage and bone within a joint)Sleep apnea and breathing problemsChronic inflammation and also increased oxidative stress19,20Some cancers (endometrial, breast, colon, kidney, gallbladder, and also liver)Low top quality of lifeMental disease such as clinical depression, anxiety, and other mental disorders21,22Body pain and challenge with physics functioning23

For much more information about these and also other wellness problems linked with obesity, visit health and wellness Effects.

1Garrow, J.S. & Webster, J., 1985. Quetelet’s index (W/H2) as a measure of fatness. Int. J. Obes., 9(2), pp.147–153.

2Freedman, D.S., Horlick, M. & Berenson, G.S., 2013. A to compare of the Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations and BMI in predicting human body fatness and cardiovascular disease risk aspect levels in children. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 98(6), pp.1417–24.

3Wohlfahrt-Veje, C. Et al., 2014. Body fat transparent childhood in 2647 healthy and balanced Danish children: agreement of BMI, belt circumference, skinfolds with double X-ray absorptiometry. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 68(6), pp.664–70.

4Steinberger, J. Et al., 2005. To compare of body fatness dimensions by BMI and skinfolds vs twin energy X-ray absorptiometry and also their relationship to cardiovascular risk components in adolescents. Int. J. Obes., 29(11), pp.1346–1352.

5Sun, Q. Et al., 2010. To compare of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometric and anthropometric actions of adiposity in relation to adiposity-related biologic factors. Am. J. Epidemiol., 172(12), pp.1442–1454.

6Lawlor, D.A. Et al., 2010. Association in between general and main adiposity in childhood, and adjust in these, v cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence: prospective cohort study. BMJ, 341, p.c6224.

7Flegal, K.M. & Graubard, B.I., 2009. Estimates of overabundance deaths linked with human body mass index and also other anthropometric variables. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 89(4), pp.1213–1219.

8Freedman, D.S. Et al., 2009. Relation of body mass index and skinfold thicknesses come cardiovascular disease risk determinants in children: the Bogalusa heart Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 90(1), pp.210–216.

9Willett, K. Et al., 2006. Compare of bioelectrical impedance and also BMI in predicting obesity-related clinical conditions. Obes. (Silver Spring), 14(3), pp.480–490.

10NHLBI. 2013. Regulating Overweight and Obesity in Adults: Systematic evidence Review native the Obesity expert Panelpdf iconexternal icon

11Kuczmarski, R.J. Et al., 2002. 2000 growth Charts because that the unified States: methods and also development. Vital health Stat. 11., 11(246), pp.1–190.

12Prentice, A.M. & Jebb, S.A., 2001. Past body fixed index. Obes. Rev., 2(3), pp.141–7.

13Wagner, D.R. & Heyward, V.H., 2000. Steps of human body composition in blacks and whites: a to compare review. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 71(6), pp.1392–1402.

14Flegal, K.M. Et al., 2010. High adiposity and high body mass index-for-age in US children and teens overall and by race-ethnic group. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 91(4), pp.1020–6.

15Barba, C. Et al., 2004. Proper body-mass table of contents for oriental populations and its effects for policy and also intervention strategies. Lancet, 363(9403), pp.157–163.

16Bray, G.A. Et al., 2001. Evaluation of body fat in fatter and leaner 10-y-old afri American and also white children: the Baton Rouge Children’s Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73(4), pp.687–702.

17Clinical accuse on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in adult pdf iconexternal icon.

18Bhaskaran K, Douglas I, Forbes H, dos-Santos-Silva I, Leon DA, Smeeth L. Body-mass index and risk the 22 specific cancers: a population-based cohort study of 5•24 million UK adults. Lancet. 2014 Aug 30;384(9945):755-65. Doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60892-8. Epub 2014 Aug 13.

19Engstrom G, Hedblad B, Stavenow L, Lind P, Janzon L and also Lingarde F. Inflammation- sensitive plasma protein are linked with future weight gain. Diabetes. Aug 2003; 52(08): 2097-101.

20Marseglia L, Manti S, D’Angelo G, Nicotera A, Parisi E, DiRosa G, Gitto E, Arrigo T. Oxidative tension in obesity: a critical component in human diseases. Worldwide Journal of molecular Sciences. Dec 2014; 16(1):378-400.

21Kasen, Stephanie, et al. “Obesity and also psychopathology in women: a three decade prospective study.” International newspaper of Obesity 32.3 (2008): 558-566.

22Luppino, Floriana S., et al. “Overweight, obesity, and depression: a methodical review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.” Archives of general psychiatry 67.3 (2010): 220-229.

See more: If Your Skin Is Moist Or Wet, Will It Act As A Good Or Poor Conductor?

23Han, T. S., et al. “Quality the life in relationship to overweight and body fat distribution.” American newspaper of publicly Health 88.12 (1998): 1814-1820.

Content source: department of Nutrition, physics Activity, and Obesity, National center for Chronic an illness Prevention and Health Promotion
Assessing your Weightplus iconAdult BMI Calculatorplus iconAbout son & teenager BMIplus iconFinding a Balanceplus iconLosing Weightplus iconHealthy Eating because that a healthy and balanced Weightplus iconWater and Healthier Drinksplus iconCutting Caloriesplus iconPhysical task for a healthy and balanced Weightplus icon