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As early on as September 1861, the CSA began issuing national currency, promise to pay the bearer the face amount — six months after the ratification that a peace treaty.

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Within job of the autumn of ft Sumter, four an ext states join the Confederacy: Virginia, phibìc Carolina, Tennessee, and also Arkansas. The battle lines were now drawn.

On paper, the Union outweighed the Confederacy in almost every way. Practically 21 million people lived in 23 northern states. The South asserted just 9 million people — including 3.5 million slaves — in 11 confederate states. Despite the North"s higher population, however, the South had actually an army nearly equal in size during the very first year the the war.

The North had an enormous industrial benefit as well. In ~ the start of the war, the Confederacy had only one-ninth the commercial capacity of the Union. Yet that statistic was misleading. In 1860, the North manufactured 97 percent the the country"s firearms, 96 percent that its railroad locomotives, 94 percent of its cloth, 93 percent that its pig iron, and over 90 percent of its boots and also shoes. The North had twice the density of railroads per square mile. There was not also one rifleworks in the entire South.


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The southern was in ~ a major disadvantage when it pertained to manufacturing, but the Confederacy regulated to store its weapons firing by producing ammunition from melted-down bells from churches and town squares.

All of the principal ingredients of gunpowder were imported. Because the North managed the navy, the seas to be in the hand of the Union. A blockade could suffocate the South. Still, the Confederacy was no without resources and also willpower.

The South can produce all the food it needed, though moving it come soldiers and also civilians to be a major problem. The South likewise had a good nucleus of trained officers. Seven of the eight military colleges in the nation were in the South.

The South additionally proved to be really resourceful. Through the end of the war, it had established armories and foundries in several states. Lock built large gunpowder mills and melted down countless church and also plantation bells because that bronze to construct cannon.

The South"s best strength lay in the truth that it to be fighting on the defensive in its very own territory. Acquainted with the landscape, Southerners can harass north invaders.

The military and also political objectives of the Union were much more challenging to accomplish. The Union had to invade, conquer, and occupy the South. It had actually to damage the South"s capacity and also will to withstand — a formidable challenge in any type of war.


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"We had actually the poorest commissary arrangements, and all I might get because that my men was salt and hard crackers. I made the convalescents shoot squirrels, ground hogs, pheasants, and turkeys v which to do soup for the men." -from the memoirs of Archibald Atkinson Jr., a Confederate surgeon

Southerners appreciated the initial benefit of morale: The south was fighting to maintain its way of life, conversely, the North was fighting to keep a union. Enslavement did not end up being a moral reason of the Union initiative until Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.

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When the war began, many key questions to be still unanswered. What if the slave says of Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and Delaware had actually joined the Confederacy? What if brother or France had pertained to the aid of the South? What if a couple of decisive beforehand Confederate victories had turned northern public opinion against the war?

Indeed, the phibìc looked much much better on paper. But many components undetermined in ~ the outbreak of war could have tilted the balance sheet towards a various outcome.