Maslow’s Humanistic concept of Personality

Maslow’s humanistic concept of personality claims that people accomplish their complete potential by moving from straightforward needs come self-actualization.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsAs a leader of humanistic psychology, Abraham Maslow approached the study of personality by focusing on spatu experiences, complimentary will, and the natural drive towards self-actualization .Maslow expanded the ar of humanity psychology to incorporate an explanation of exactly how human needs readjust throughout an individual’s lifespan, and also how this needs affect the advance of personality.Maslow’s power structure of needs ranks human needs from the most basic physical requirements to the most advanced needs that self-actualization. A human being must acquire and also master each level the need before proceeding to the next need.Maslow learned the personalities of self-actualizers and also found lock had countless things in common; he thought self-actualizers suggest a coherent personality syndrome and stand for optimal mental health and functioning.Maslow’s concepts have to be criticized for their absence of scientific rigor, and their Western social bias.Key Termstranscendence: remarkable excellence; supereminence.humanistic psychology: A psychological perspective which climbed to prestige in the mid-20th century in response to psychoanalytic theory and also behaviorism; this method emphasizes an individual’s innate drive towards self-actualization and creativity.self-actualization: follow to humanistic theory, the establish of one’s full potential; can include an innovative expression, search for spirituality enlightenment, search of knowledge, or the desire to give to society.

Often dubbed the “third force” in psychology, humanism was a reaction to both the downhearted determinism the psychoanalysis, through its focus on psychological disturbance, and also to the behaviorists’ see of humans passively reacting to the environment. 2 of the top humanistic thinkers who made advancements in the field of personality psychology were Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.

Abraham Maslow’s Humanism

As a leader of mankind psychology, Abraham Maslow approached the study of personality psychology by focusing on spatu experiences and cost-free will. He was mainly concerned with one individual’s inherent drive towards self-actualization—a state that fulfillment in i beg your pardon a human being is achieving at his or her highest level that capability. Maslow positioned his work-related as a an important complement to the of Freud, saying: “It is as if Freud provided us the sick half of psychology and also we need to now fill it out through the healthy and balanced half.”

In his research, Maslow learned the personalities of people who he thought about to it is in healthy, creative, and also productive, consisting of Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, cutting board Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and also others. He uncovered that such people share comparable characteristics, such as being open, creative, loving, spontaneous, compassionate, came to for others, and accepting of themselves.

Personality and the hierarchy of Needs

Maslow is maybe most popular for his power structure of demands theory, in which he proposes that human beings have certain needs in common and that this needs need to be met in a details order. These needs variety from the most basic physiological requirements for survive to higher-level self-actualization and also transcendence needs. Maslow’s pecking order is most often presented visually together a pyramid, through the largest, most an essential physiological requirements at the bottom and the smallest, most progressed self-actualization demands at the top. Every layer the the pyramid must be fulfilled prior to moving up the pyramid to higher needs, and this process is continued throughout the lifespan.


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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Abraham Maslow arisen a human hierarchy of demands that is conceptualized as a pyramid to stand for how world move native one level of requirements to another. Very first physiological needs should be met before safety needs, climate the require for love and also belonging, climate esteem, and also finally self-actualization.


Maslow believed that successful fulfillment of each layer of demands was critical in the advance of personality. The highest need because that self-actualization represents the accomplishment of our fullest potential, and also those people who finally accomplished self-actualization were claimed to represent optimal mental health and functioning. Maslow extended the field of mental study to incorporate fully-functional individuals instead of just those v psychoses, and also he shed a more positive irradiate on personality psychology.

Characteristics the Self-Actualizers

Maslow viewed self-actualizers together the supreme achievers in the human race. He studied stand-out people in bespeak to far better understand what qualities they possessed that permitted them to achieve self-actualization. In his research, he uncovered that numerous of these human being shared specific personality traits.

Most self-actualizers had a good sense of awareness, preserving a near-constant enjoyment and awe the life. Castle often described peak experiences throughout which they felt such an intense level of satisfaction that they appeared to transcend themselves. They actively engaged in tasks that would certainly bring about this emotion of unity and meaningfulness. Regardless of this fact, most of these people seemed deep rooted in reality and were active problem-seekers and also solvers. They arisen a level of acceptance for what could not be adjusted and a level that spontaneity and also resilience to tackle what might be changed. Most of these human being had healthy and balanced relationships with a little group through which they communicated frequently. Follow to Maslow, self-actualized civilization indicate a coherent personality syndrome and represent optimal emotional health and functioning.

Criticism that Maslow’s Theories

Maslow’s concepts have been criticized for their lack of clinical rigor. As with all at an early stage psychological studies, questions have been raised around the absence of empirical evidence used in his research. Since of the subjective nature the the study, the holistic approach enables for a good deal of variation but does not determine enough constant variables in bespeak to be researched with true accuracy. Psychologists also worry the such severe focus on the subjective experience of the individual does little to explain or appreciate the affect of culture on personality development. Furthermore, the pecking order of needs has been accused of cultural bias—mainly mirroring Western values and ideologies. Doubters argue that this ide is considered relative come each society and culture and cannot be universally applied.


Rogers’ Humanistic concept of Personality

Carl Rogers’ humanity personality theory emphasizes the prominence of the self-actualizing tendency in forming a self-concept.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsCarl Rogers was an prominent humanistic psychologist who arisen a personality concept that emphasized the prominence of the self-actualizing tendency in shaping human personalities.Rogers believed that human beings are constantly reaction to stimuli through their subjective reality ( phenomenal field ), which alters continuously. Over time, a person develops a self- concept based on the feedback native this field of reality.In the development of self-concept, confident regard is key. Unconditional hopeful regard is an setting that is totally free of preconceived notions the value. Conditional hopeful regard is full of problems of worth that have to be completed to be taken into consideration successful.Human us develop perfect self and also a real self based on the conditional standing of positive regard. How carefully one’s genuine self matches up v their ideal self is called congruity.Rogers believed that totally functioning human being could achieve “the good life,” in which castle constantly target to accomplish their potential and allow their personalities to emanate from your experiences.Like Maslow’s theories, Rogers’ were criticized for their absence of empirical proof in research.Key Termsholistic: Relating to the totality instead the a separation into parts.humanistic psychology: A emotional perspective which climbed to importance in the mid-20th century in an answer to psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism; this technique emphasizes an individual’s natural drive towards self-actualization and creativity.congruity: An circumstances or point of commitment or correspondence between the best self and the actual self in Rogers’ mankind personality theory.phenomenal field: Our spatu reality, every that us are mindful of, including objects and people as well as our behaviors, thoughts, images, and also ideas.

Carl Rogers: Carl Rogers was a significant humanistic psychologist that is well-known for his concept of personality the emphasizes change, growth, and also the potential for human being good.


Carl Rogers was a prominent psychologist and also one of the founding members that the humanist movement. Along with Abraham Maslow, he focused on the growth potential of healthy individuals and also greatly contributed to our expertise of the self and personality. Both Rogers’ and also Maslow’s theories emphasis on separation, personal, instance choices and also do not organize that biologic is deterministic. They emphasized free will and also self-determination, through each separation, personal, instance desiring to come to be the finest person they have the right to become.

Humanistic psychology emphasized the active duty of the individual in shaping their internal and also external worlds. Rogers progressed the ar by stressing that the human being person is one active, creative, experiencing being who stays in the present and subjectively responds to present perceptions, relationships, and also encounters. That coined the ax actualizing tendency, which describes a person’s simple instinct come succeed at his or she highest possible capacity. With person-centered counseling and scientific therapy research, Rogers created his theory of personality development, i beg your pardon highlighted free will and also the an excellent reservoir of human potential for goodness.

Personality advancement and the Self-Concept

Rogers based his theory of personality development on humanistic psychology and also theories of spatu experience. He thought that anyone exists in a constantly changing world that experiences the they space at the facility of. A human reacts to changes in your phenomenal field, which consists of external objects and people and also internal thoughts and also emotions.


The phenomenal field: The phenomenal field refers to a person’s spatu reality, which includes external objects and people and internal thoughts and also emotions. The person’s motivations and environments both action on your phenomenal field.


Rogers thought that all actions is urged by self-actualizing tendencies, which drive a person to attain at their greatest level. Together a result of your interactions v the environment and others, one individual forms a structure of the me or self-concept—an organized, fluid, conceptual pattern of concepts and values related to the self. If a person has a confident self-concept, they tend to feel an excellent about who they are and often check out the world as a safe and also positive place. If they have actually a negative self-concept, they may feel unhappy with who castle are.

Ideal self vs. Genuine Self

Rogers further separated the self into two categories: the best self and the genuine self. The ideal me is the person that you would favor to be; the real self is the human you actually are. Rogers concentrated on the idea that we require to achieve consistency between these two selves. We experience congruence when ours thoughts around our real self and ideal me are an extremely similar—in other words, as soon as our self-concept is accurate. High congruence leads to a better sense of self-worth and a healthy, abundant life. Conversely, as soon as there is a great discrepancy in between our ideal and actual selves, we experience a state Rogers dubbed incongruence, which deserve to lead come maladjustment.

Unconditional positive Regard

In the development of the self-concept, Rogers elevated the prestige of unconditional positive regard, or unconditional love. Civilization raised in an environment of unconditional optimistic regard, in i beg your pardon no preconceived problems of worth room present, have actually the chance to fully actualize. When civilization are elevated in an environment of conditional optimistic regard, in i beg your pardon worth and love are only provided under specific conditions, they must complement or accomplish those conditions in stimulate to get the love or optimistic regard lock yearn for. Their appropriate self is thereby identified by others based upon these conditions, and they are required to construct outside that their own true actualizing tendency; this contributes come incongruence and also a better gap in between the real self and the best self.

“The good Life”

Rogers defined life in terms of values rather than stages that development. These values exist in fluid processes rather than revolution states. He claimed that a completely functioning human would continually aim to meet his or she potential in every of these processes, achieve what he dubbed “the good life.” These world would allow personality and also self-concept to emanate native experience. He uncovered that completely functioning individuals had several characteristics or tendencies in common:

A growing openness come experience–they move away from defensiveness.An significantly existential lifestyle–living each minute fully, fairly than distortion the minute to right personality or self-concept.Increasing organismic trust–they trust their very own judgment and their capability to choose actions that is suitable for every moment.Freedom the choice–they are not restricted by incongruence and also are may be to do a wide range of choices much more fluently. They think that they play a role in determining their own behavior and also so feeling responsible for their own behavior.Higher level of creativity–they will certainly be more an imaginative in the method they it is adapted to their own circumstances without feeling a need to conform.Reliability and constructiveness–they can be trusted to plot constructively. Even aggressive requirements will it is in matched and also balanced through intrinsic kindness in congruent individuals.A rich complete life–they will endure joy and pain, love and also heartbreak, fear and courage an ext intensely.

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Criticisms that Rogers’ Theories

Like Maslow’s theories, Rogers’ were criticized because that their lack of empirical evidence used in research. The holistic approach of humanism enables for a an excellent deal of variation but does not determine enough consistent variables to be researched with true accuracy. Psychologists also worry the such an extreme focus top top the subjective endure of the individual does small to explain or appreciate the influence of culture on personality development.