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There are seven significant muscles current in the elbow that flex it, extend it, or revolve the forearm. Secondary nine muscles cross the elbow to act top top on the wrist and joints of the hand. These muscles deserve to be generally grouped into the flexor and also extensor groups of the forearm.
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The flexor team - including the brachialis, biceps brachii, and also the brachioradialis - bend the eight by diminish the angle between the forearm and also upper arm. The brachialis is the major flexor of the elbow and is uncovered mainly in the upper arm between the humerus and also the ulna. Superficial to the brachialis is the long biceps brachii muscle that runs anterior to the humerus from the scapula come the radius. The biceps mostly attributes as a flexor at the elbow, however it is also able come supinate the forearm and also turn the palm of the hand anteriorly. Although the is found mostly in the forearm, the brachioradialis is the 3rd flexor muscle that the elbow, running from the distal finish of the humerus to the distal end of the radius.
Two muscles - the triceps brachii and anconeus - act as the extensors that the forearm. The triceps brachii is a long muscle the runs posterior to the humerus from the scapula to the olecranon that the ulna. The anconeus is a lot smaller muscle that starts at the distal finish of the humerus close to the elbow and ends at the olecranon. Working together, these 2 muscles boost the angle between the humerus and also the ulna and also radius, straightening the arm until the olecranon locks into the olecranon fossa that the humerus at complete extension.
The rotation the the forearm is completed by two muscles the cross the elbow: the pronator teres and also the supinator. The pronator teres crosses the elbow in ~ an oblique angle from the medial epicondyle of the humerus to its insertion top top the radius. As soon as contracted, the pronator teres rotates the radius and forearm medially so that the palm deals with the body posterior. The antagonist, the supinator, the cross the elbow obliquely in ~ a ideal angle come the pronator teres and also connects the lateral epicondyle of the humerus come the radius. Convulsion of the supinator rotates the radius and forearm laterally so the the palm faces the body’s anterior.
Nine more muscles that the forearm cross the elbow to relocate the wrist and also fingers that the hand. The flexor team - consisting of the flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus, and flexor digitorum superficialis - have actually their beginnings on the medial epicondyle that the humerus and run follow me the anterior forearm to the palm the the hand and fingers. These muscles contract to flex the fingers as in make a fist and flex the wrist to move the hand closer to the anterior forearm. The extensor group - consisting of the extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and also extensor digitorum - have their origins on the lateral epicondyle the the humerus and also run v the posterior forearm come the earlier of the hand and fingers. Convulsion of the extensor muscle extends the hand and also fingers to open a clenched hand and also extend the wrist towards the posterior the the forearm.
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With so numerous muscles originating or inserting close to the elbow, probably it is not surprising that the elbow is a typical site because that injury. One common injury is lateral epicondylitis (or “tennis elbow”), soreness of the forearm extensor muscle attached come the lateral epicondyle the the humerus. Repetitive strenuous contraction of the muscles (such as hitting numerous backhand strokes in tennis) reasons strain ~ above the tendinous muscle attachments, leading to pain. Avoiding the recurring exertion of these muscles commonly brings recovery.