1 Introduction1.1 computer functionality1.2 using files and also programs1.3 The Internet and also WWW1.4 E-mail2 The UH environment2.1 User accounts and usernames2.2 computer facilities and also services2.3 E-mail in ~ the college of stillproud.org2.4 Planning your studies2.5 researching online3 info seeking3.1 plan the details search3.2 information retrieval3.3 Library services at the college of stillproud.org3.4 Utilising and evaluating search results4 info security4.1 advent to details security and privacy protection4.2 Protecting yourself from threatsAdvanced studies: presenting data (1 sp)P.1 Common types of data presentationP.2 native processingP.3 SpreadsheetsP.4 on slide showsP.5 delivering data between programsP.6 Videos
Operating system and user interface

As currently mentioned, in addition to the hardware, a computer likewise needs a collection of programs—an operation system—to control the devices. This web page will discuss the following:

There are different kinds of operation systems: such together Windows, Linux and also Mac OSThere are also different execution of these operating systems, e.g. Windows 7, 8 and 10Operating systems can be offered with various user interfaces (UI): message user interfaces (TUI) and graphical user interfaces (GUI) as examplesGraphical user interfaces have plenty of similarities in different operating systems: such together the begin menu, desktop computer etc.

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When you have the right to recognize the typical parts that each operating system’s user interface, you will mostly have the ability to use both Windows and Linux and e.g. Mac OS.

The duty of operating system in the computer

An operating system (OS) is a collection of program which ensures the interoperability of the hardware and also software in her computer. The operating mechanism enables, amongst other things,

the identification and also activation that devices associated to the computer,the installation and use of programs, andthe handling of files.

What happens when you revolve on your computer or smartphone?– The computer system checks the functionality of that is components and any devices associated to it, and also starts to look for the OS top top a difficult drive or other memory media.– If the OS is found, the computer starts to fill it into the ram (Random access Memory).– as soon as the OS has actually loaded, the computer waits for commands from you.

Different operating systems

Over the years, several different operating systems have actually been arisen for different purposes. The most typical operating equipment in ordinary computers are Windows, Linux and Mac OS.


The name of the home windows OS originates from the reality that programs room run in “windows”: every program has actually its very own window, and also you have the right to have several programs open at the very same time. Windows is the most famous OS for home computers, and also there are number of versions of it. The newest variation is windows 10.

Linux and Unix

Linux is an open-source OS, which means that its program code is freely obtainable to software program developers. This is why thousands of programmers about the world have arisen Linux, and also it is thought about the most tested OS in the world. Linux has actually been an extremely much influenced by the advertising Unix OS.

In enhancement to servers, Linux is widely provided in residence computers, because there room a great number of cost-free programs for it (for text and image processing, spreadsheets, publishing, etc.). Over the years, many different version of Linux have become available for distribution, most of i m sorry are free for the user (such as Ubuntu, Fedora and Mint, to name a few).

Mac OS X

Apple’s Mac computer systems have their own operating system, OS X. Many of the programs that are accessible for computers are also easily accessible for Macs to run under OS X, yet these two varieties of computers cannot usage the precise same programs: for example, you can not install the Mac variation of the Microsoft Office suite ~ above a windows computer. You deserve to install other operating equipment on Mac computers, but the OS X is only accessible for computer systems made through Apple. Apple’s lighter portable tools (iPads, iPhones) usage a light version of the very same operating system, dubbed iOS.

Mac computers are popular since OS X is considered fast, basic to find out and an extremely stable and also Apple’s gadgets are thought about well-designed—though quite expensive.


Android is one operating system designed for phones and other mobile devices. Android is not accessible for desktop computers, however in mobile devices it is extremely popular: more than a fifty percent of every mobile tools in the people run ~ above Android.

User interfaces

A user interface (UI) refers to the part of an operating system, program, or machine that allows a user come enter and also receive information. A text-based user interface (see the picture to the left) screens text, and its regulates are usually typed on a command line using a keyboard. With a graphical user interface (see the right-hand image), the features are lugged out by click or relocating buttons, icons and also menus by way of a pointing device.

Larger image: text UI | graphical UI

The pictures contain the very same information: a catalog listing the a computer. You deserve to often bring out the same work regardless that which kind of UI you are using.

Text user interface (TUI)

Modern graphical user interfaces have progressed from text-based UIs. Part operating systems deserve to still be used with a text-based user interface. In this case, the regulates are gone into as text (e.g., “cat story.txt”).

To screen the text-based Command prompt in Windows, open up the Start food selection and kind cmd. Press Enter top top the key-board to start the command note in a different window. V the command prompt, you can kind your commands from the keyboard rather of using the mouse.

Graphical user interface

In many operating systems, the main user user interface is graphical, i.e. Instead of typing the regulates you manipulate various graphical objects (such as icons) with a pointing device. The underlying principle of different graphical user interfaces (GUIs) is mainly the same, therefore by knowing just how to use a windows UI, you will certainly most likely know exactly how to use Linux or some other GUI.

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Most GUIs have the following straightforward components:

a start food selection with routine groupsa taskbar reflecting running programsa desktopvarious icons and also shortcuts.