"The Raven" by Edgar Allan Poe is one of the most well-known poems ever before written. It lugged its author global fame and also has generally been analyzed, performed, and parodied. However what around this poem renders it so special?

In this guide, we give you a complete overview of "The Raven," discussing whatever from the sad story behind the creation and also what is in reality going on in between the narrator and the raven, to its themes and the poetic gadgets it offers so effectively.

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The crow Poem: full Text

Below is the finish text of The crow poem, created by Edgar Allan Poe and published in 1845. It is composed of 18 stanzas and also a complete of 108 lines.

Once upon a midnight dreary, while ns pondered, weak and also weary,
Over numerous a quaint and also curious volume of forgotten lore—
While i nodded, virtually napping, unexpectedly there come a tapping,
As of part one tenderness rapping, rapping at my room door.
""Tis some visitor," ns muttered, "tapping at my room door—
Only this and nothing more."
Ah, distinctly i remember it remained in the bleak December;
And each separate dying ember wrought that is ghost top top the floor.
Eagerly i wished the morrow;—vainly I had sought come borrow
From my books surcease the sorrow—sorrow for the lost Lenore—
For the rare and also radiant maiden whom the angels surname Lenore—
Nameless right here for evermore.
And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling that each purple curtain
Thrilled me—filled me with great terrors never felt before;
So that now, come still the beating of my heart, i stood repeating
""Tis part visitor entreating entrance in ~ my chamber door—
Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door;—
This that is and also nothing more."
Presently my soul prospered stronger; hesitating climate no longer,
"Sir," said I, "or Madam, truly her forgiveness i implore;
But the fact is i was napping, and also so tenderness you come rapping,
And therefore faintly you came tapping, tapping at my room door,
That i scarce was certain I heard you"—here ns opened vast the door;—
Darkness there and also nothing more.
Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing,
Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before;
But the silence to be unbroken, and also the stillness provided no token,
And the just word there talked was the whispered word, "Lenore?"
This ns whispered, and also an echo murmured ago the word, "Lenore!"—
Merely this and also nothing more.
Back into the chamber turning, every my heart within me burning,
Soon again i heard a tapping somewhat louder than before.
"Surely," said I, "surely that is something at my window lattice;
Let me see, then, what thereat is, and this mystery explore—
Let my love be tho a moment and this an enig explore;—
"Tis the wind and also nothing more!"
Open here I flung the shutter, when, with many a flirt and flutter,
In over there stepped a stately raven of the saintly work of yore;
Not the least obeisance make he; no a minute stopped or continued to be he;
But, through mien of mr or lady, perched above my room door—
Perched top top a bust that Pallas just over my chamber door—
Perched, and also sat, and also nothing more.
Then this ebony bird beguiling mine sad sophisticated into smiling,
By the grave and stern decorum of the countenance the wore,
"Though thy crest it is in shorn and also shaven, thou," ns said, "art sure no craven,
Ghastly grim and old Raven wandering from the Nightly shore—
Tell me what your lordly surname is ~ above the Night"s Plutonian shore!"
Quoth the crow "Nevermore."
Much ns marvelled this ungainly fowl to hear discourse for this reason plainly,
Though the answer small meaning—little relevancy bore;
For us cannot assist agreeing that no living human being being
Ever yet was blessed with seeing bird over his room door—
Bird or beast ~ above the sculptured bust over his room door,
With such name as "Nevermore."
But the Raven, sitting lonely top top the placid bust, spoke only
That one word, as if his soul in that one word the did outpour.
Nothing farther climate he uttered—not a feather climate he fluttered—
Till ns scarcely much more than muttered "Other friends have actually flown before—
On the morrow he will certainly leave me, as my Hopes have actually flown before."
Then the bird said "Nevermore."
Startled at the stillness broken by reply so suitable spoken,
"Doubtless," claimed I, "what it utters is its just stock and also store
Caught from part unhappy understand whom unmerciful Disaster
Followed fast and followed quicker till his song one load bore—
Till the dirges the his Hope that melancholy load bore
Of ‘Never—nevermore"."
But the Raven still beguiling every my an elaborate into smiling,
Straight I rolled a cushioned seat in front of bird, and bust and door;
Then, top top the velvet sinking, i betook myself to linking
Fancy depend fancy, thinking what this ominous bird of yore—
What this grim, ungainly, ghastly, gaunt, and also ominous bird the yore
Meant in croaking "Nevermore."
This i sat involved in guessing, yet no valuation expressing
To the fowl whose fiery eye now shed into mine bosom"s core;
This and much more I satellite divining, with my head at ease reclining
On the cushion"s velvet lining that the lamp-light gloated o"er,
But who velvet-violet lining v the lamp-light gloating o"er,
She shall press, ah, nevermore!
Then, methought, the air grew denser, perfumed indigenous an unseen censer
Swung by Seraphim who foot-falls tinkled ~ above the tufted floor.
"Wretch," i cried, "thy God afoot lent thee—by this angels the hath sent thee
Respite—respite and also nepenthe from your memories that Lenore;
Quaff, five quaff this sort nepenthe and forget this lost Lenore!"
Quoth the raven "Nevermore."
"Prophet!" claimed I, "thing that evil!—prophet still, if bird or devil!—
Whether Tempter sent, or whether storm tossed thee below ashore,
Desolate yet every undaunted, top top this desert floor enchanted—
On this home by horror haunted—tell me truly, ns implore—
Is there—is there enjoyment in Gilead?—tell me—tell me, i implore!"
Quoth the crow "Nevermore."
"Prophet!" claimed I, "thing that evil!—prophet still, if bird or devil!
By that Heaven that bends over us—by the God us both adore—
Tell this heart with woe laden if, in ~ the remote Aidenn,
It chandelier clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels surname Lenore—
Clasp a rare and also radiant maiden who the angels name Lenore."
Quoth the crow "Nevermore."
"Be that word our sign of parting, bird or fiend!" i shrieked, upstarting—
"Get thee back into the tempest and the Night"s Plutonian shore!
Leave no black plume together a token of the lie thy soul hath spoken!
Leave mine loneliness unbroken!—quit the bust over my door!
Take thy beak from the end my heart, and also take thy kind from off my door!"
Quoth the crow "Nevermore."
And the Raven, never flitting, quiet is sitting, quiet is sitting
On the pallid bust the Pallas just above my chamber door;
And his eyes have actually all the seeming the a demon"s the is dreaming,
And the lamp-light o"er him streaming litter his zero on the floor;
And my spirit from out that shadow the lies floating on the floor
Shall be lifted—nevermore!

What Is "The Raven" About?

"The Raven" is a poem around a man who is heartbroken end the recent death of his beloved Lenore. Together he overcome a lonely December night in his room, a crow taps continuously on the door and also then the window. The man very first thinks the noise is caused by a late night visitor involved disturb him, and he is surprised to discover the raven once he opens the window shutter. After being let in, the raven paris to and lands on a bust the Pallas (an old Greek goddess that wisdom).

The guy is enjoy it by just how serious the raven looks, and he starts talking to the raven; however, the bird deserve to only answer by croaking "nevermore."

The male reflects aloud the the bird will leave him shortly as all the human being he cared around have left him. Once the crow replies "nevermore," the guy takes it as the bird agreeing v him, return it"s unsure if the raven in reality understands what the male is speak or is just speaking the one word the knows.

As the man continues to converse with the bird, he progressively loses his tight on reality. He move his chair directly in prior of the raven and asks it despairing questions, consisting of whether he and also Lenore will certainly be reunited in heaven. Now, rather of being simply amused by the bird, he takes the raven"s repeated "nevermore" solution as a authorize that all his dark thoughts space true. He at some point grows angry and also shrieks in ~ the raven, calling it a devil and a point of evil.

The poem ends v the crow still sitting on the bust the Pallas and also the narrator, seemingly defeated by his grief and also madness, declaring that his spirit shall it is in lifted "nevermore."

Background ~ above "The Raven"

Edgar Allan Poe composed "The Raven" during a daunting period in his life. His wife, Virginia, was enduring from tuberculosis, Poe to be struggling to do money together an unknown writer, and he began drinking heavily and picking fights through coworkers and also other writers. It"s easy to see exactly how he could have conjured the dark and also melancholy mood of "The Raven."

It"s not known exactly how long Poe spent writing "The Raven," (guesses variety from all over to a single day to end a decade) but it"s thought most likely that he created the city in the summer the 1844. In his essay, "The approach of Composition," Poe stated that he decided to emphasis the city on the death of a beautiful woman since it is "unquestionably the many poetical topic in the world." He hope "The Raven" would certainly make him famous, and, in the same essay, declared that he intentionally wrote the poem to appeal come both "the popular and the an important taste."

"The Raven" was published in the newspaper The brand-new York Evening mirror on January 29, 1845 (depending on the source, Poe to be paid either $9 or $15 for it). "The Raven" brought Poe instant fame, although not the financial security he was looking for. critical reception was mixed, with some famed writers such together Ralph Waldo Emerson and William servant Yeats expressing their dislike because that the poem. Despite those initial blended reviews, The Raven city has continued its popularity and is now one the the most popular poems in the world. Plenty of parodies have actually been written, and also the poem has been referenced in whatever from The Simpsons to the NFL team the Baltimore Ravens (their mascot is even named "Poe").


Major Themes in "The Raven"

From The raven summary, we know it"s certainly a melancholy poem, and most the its themes revolve roughly grim topics. Right here are 3 of the most crucial themes.

Theme 1: Grief

Grief is the overwhelming emotion in "The Raven," and also the narrator is absolutely consumed by his grief because that his lost love, Lenore. At the start of the poem, he tries come distract himself from his sadness by reading a "volume of forget lore", yet when the crow arrives, he immediately begins peppering it through questions around Lenore and also becomes more lost in his grief at the raven"s response of "nevermore." through the end of the poem, the narrator is watch broken, stating that his spirit will never ever again it is in "lifted" because of his sadness.

Poe stated that the raven itself to be a prize of grief, specifically, that it stood for "mournful and also never-ending remembrance." that purposely determined a raven end a parrot (a bird species better known because that its capability to speak) since he believed a raven suited the dark ton of the city better.

Edgar Allan Poe had actually experienced a good deal that grief by the moment he wrote "The Raven," and he had actually seen civilization close to him leave, autumn gravely ill, or die. He would have actually been well conscious of the consuming strength that grief can have and also how it has the capability to blot whatever else out.

Theme 2: Devotion

It"s the narrator"s deep love for Lenore that reasons him such grief, and also later rage and madness. Even though Lenore has died, the narrator still loves her and also appears can not to think that anything but her. In the poem, he speak of Lenore in superlatives, calling her "sainted" and also "radiant." In his mind, she is completely perfect, almost a saint. His love because that this woman who is no longer right here distracts him from every little thing in his existing life. with this theme, Poe is showing the strength of love and also how that can continue to be powerful even after ~ death.

Theme 3: Rationality vs Irrationality

At the beginning of the poem, the narrator is rational sufficient to recognize that Lenore is dead and also he will not check out her again. As soon as the raven first begins repeating "nevermore," that realizes that the price is the bird"s "only stock and store," and also he won"t acquire another an answer no matter what the asks. He appears to even find the bird vaguely amusing.

However, as the poem continues, the narrator"s irrationality rises as that asks the raven inquiries it couldn"t maybe know and takes its repeated an answer of "nevermore" to it is in a truthful and logical answer. He then descends further into madness, cursing the bird as a "devil" and also "thing of evil" and also thinking he feels angels bordering him prior to sinking right into his grief. That has plainly come undone by the finish of the poem.

In "The Raven," Poe wanted to show the good line between rational thought and madness and also how strong emotions, such as grief, deserve to push a human being into irrationality, even throughout mundane interactions prefer the one the narrator had with the raven.

The 7 key Poetic tools "The Raven" Uses

Edgar Allan Poe provides use of plenty of poetic tools in "The Raven" to create a memorable and moving piece of writing. Below we comment on seven that the most vital of this devices and also how they contribute to the poem.


Alliteration is the repetition of a sound or letter at the beginning of multiple indigenous in a work, and it"s possibly the most apparent poetic an equipment in "The Raven." The poem is full of alliteration, such together the unit volume "weak and also weary," "nearly napping," and "followed fast and also followed faster." This poetic machine helps provide the city its famous musicality and also is among the reasons human being love to recite it.


An allusion is one indirect reference to something, and Poe makes multiple allusions in "The Raven." Some crucial ones include:

The bust that Pallas the raven sits on describes Pallas Athena, the ancient Greek goddess that wisdom.

Nepenthe is a drug stated in Homer"s old epic The Odyssey, and also it is purported to erase memories.

The enjoyment of Gilead is a recommendation to a healing cream pointed out in the book of Jeremiah in the Bible.

Aidenn refers to the Garden that Eden, back the narrator likely uses the to average "heaven" in general, as he wants to recognize if that"s where he and also Lenore will reunite.

Ravens themselves are stated in plenty of stories, consisting of Norse mythology and Ovid"s epic poem Metamorphoses.

Many readers would certainly be well-versed in the books and stories alluded to in the poem, and also they would certainly have understood the recommendations without Poe having to explicitly explain where every was acquired from. Act so would have broken the tension and mood that the poem, for this reason Poe is able come simply allude to them.


Similar to alliteration, assonance is the repeat of vowel sounds in one or more words found close together. It serves the same objective as alliteration and appears beginning in the very first line that the poem, where the long "e" sound is recurring in the indigenous "dreary," "weak," and "weary."


The majority of "The Raven" follows trochaic octameter, which is when there room eight trochaic feet per line, and each foot has one emphasize syllable adhered to by one unpled syllable.

However, Poe actually used several species of meter, and also he is stated to have based both the meter and also rhyming pattern of "The Raven" turn off Elizabeth Barrett"s poem " Lady Geraldine"s Courtship." Meter is really prominent in "The Raven," and, along with other poetic devices, helps do it such a popular poem to recite.


Many words are repetitive in "The Raven" the most famous being the word "nevermore" repetitive by the bird self throughout the poem. Other generally repeated words and also phrases in the poem include "Lenore," "chamber door" and "nothing more." These every rhyme with "nevermore" and include to the emotion of despondency in the poem through emphasizing the raven"s cold answer to every question.


The rhyming sample in "The Raven" complies with the pattern ABCBBB. The "B" lines all rhyme v "nevermore" and also place added emphasis top top the last syllable that the line.

There is likewise quite a bit of inner rhyme within the poem, such as the line "But the silence was unbroken, and the stillness offered no token," whereby "unbroken" rhymes through "token."

Internal rhyming occurs in the very first line of every stanza. It additionally occurs in the third line and component of the fourth line of each stanza. In the example "Leave no black plume as a token of the lie thy heart hath spoken!/Leave my loneliness unbroken!—quit the bust over my door!" "token" and "spoken" in the 3rd line the the stanza rhyme through "unbroken" in the fourth line the the stanza.


Onomatopoeia is when the surname of a native is associated with the sound that makes, and also it occurs throughout "The Raven," such just like the words "rapping," "tapping," "shrieked," and "whispered." It every helps include to the atmospheric quality of the poem and makes readers feel as though they space really in the room v the narrator and the raven.


What"s Next?

"Ozymandias" by Percy Shelley is one more famous and also often-studied poem. find out all about this poem and its famed line "look on mine works, ye mighty, and also despair" in our complete guide come Ozymandias.

There room many an ext poetic tools than those contained in "The Raven." review our overview on the 20 poetic gadgets you need to recognize so girlfriend can become an expert.

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