On April 12, 1770, the British government moves come mollify outraged homesteaders by repealing most of the rule of the hated Townshend Act. At first passed ~ above June 29, 1767, the Townshend action constituted an attempt by the British government to consolidate fiscal and also political strength over the American colonies by placing income taxes on many of the British products bought through Americans, including lead, paper, paint, glass and tea.

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The measure bore the name of that is sponsor, Charles Townshend, the chancellor of the Exchequer, who was notoriously conservative in his knowledge of early american rights. Townshend’s annual Revenue act levied a controversial parcel of taxes on the colonists, consisting of duties on lead, painters’ colors, document and tea. The chancellor additionally undermined the colonial judiciary by enhancing the power of the brothers navy’s vice-admiralty courts over American colonists and also initiating one American board of personalizeds Commissioners charged with enforcing his brand-new import taxes. These taxes were used at least in part to fund the salaries of colonial governors and also judges to ensure their financial, and thus political, independence from the early american assemblies. Townshend additionally moved brothers troops indigenous the west frontier come the east seaboard, whereby they were both less expensive to supply and more troubling to colonists, that feared that they to be being asked to cover the prices of your own military oppression.

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Riotous protest of the Townshend action in the nests often invoked the expression no taxation without representation. Colonists eventually made decision not to import British items until the act to be repealed and also to boycott any goods that were imported in violation of their non-importation agreement. Early american anger culminated in the fatal Boston Massacre on march 5, 1770.

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Also on march 5, Townshend’s successor (he had passed away soon after ~ proposing the hated act), mr Frederick North, asked parliament to repeal the Townshend Acts other than for the duty ~ above tea; he considered all the duties negative for trade and, thus, expensive because that the brothers empire. However, that wished to protect against the figure of weak in the face of colonial protest and thus left the tea taxes in place. This strategy properly divided early american merchants, eager, for their very own enrichment, to resume trade in every British goods barring tea, from early american craftsmen, who profited from non-importation agreements, and also wished to leaving them in ar as long as the tax on tea stayed in effect.