DOMINICANREPUBLICIntroductionContemporary principles of organic manufacturing were presented intothe Dominican Republic in the early 1980s, but it was not until the mid 1990sthat manufacturing expanded. Organic production is now crucial component ofthe agricultural sector. In 1999 organic produce was estimated to contributeabout 20 percent the total agricultural exports with a worth of US$9.6 million.In 2000, the worth of necessary exports had actually doubled to US$20.9 million. TheDominican Republic is right now one that the leading exporters the tropical organicproducts globally. Lot of the information on organic production is eitherdocumented in grey literature or is tho undocumented. Organic manufacturing inthe nation is plainly dominated by bananas i m sorry account for around 80 percentof all organic exports.1. History of the organic ar in the DominicanRepublic1.1 Origins and pioneersThe contemporary era that organic production in the Dominican Republicdates ago to 1982. Mark Freedman created the an initial demonstration plot inRio Limpio, Loma de Cabrera and this was later to form the basis because that theRegional Centre because that the examine of new alternatives for Rural areas (CentroRegional de Estudios de Alternativas Rurales (CREAR). Throughout this initialphase 1980-95, several other institutions were likewise involved in capacitybuilding, notably: Centre because that Sustainable agriculture with AppropriateTechnology (Centro de Agricultura Sostenible con TecnologíaApropiada-CASTA) in Villa Altagracia, centre for agriculture withAppropriate modern technology for the community (Centro de Agricultura conTecnología Apropiada para la Comunidad - CAOTACO) in los Indios deDajabon and Farmer institution for Sustainable farming (Escuela Campesina deAgricultura Sostenible - ECAS) in Apolinar Perdomo de Neyba. Several of thisearly background is recorded by Ornes (1987).Plantaciones Tropicales brought out the firstcommercial exports of organic create in 1989. These consisted of mainly violin ofbananas come Europe and also to the unified States. Ultimately they exported cocoa,coffee, coconuts and also mangoes. In enhancement they were additionally involved in fiddle ofcrude coconut oil. Savid S.A., started shipping essential bananas come Europe in 1994from an area of 350 ha, produced by little farmers in Azua. Subsequently thecompany grew and also is right now the largest exporter of organic produce in theDominican Republic and provides technical and also financial aid to farmers.The Grupo de Desarrollo landscape Nacional (GRAN), i beg your pardon is a communitydevelopment organization, has likewise played a key role in the development oforganic manufacturing in the Dominican Republic. Organic manufacturing rapidlyexpanded during the period 1995 onwards and, as discussed, many organizationsbecame involved.1.2 support receivedDuring the initial step when concepts for necessary productionwere gift developed, assistance was mainly given by private foundations and also thegovernment. The development of the industry was however market driven. Marketingcompanies such as Savid S.A. And Horizontes Orgánicos providetechnical and also financial help to farmers. Savid S.A. For instance, providesloans to cover as much as 70 percent of manufacturing costs. This is feasible becausepartners the Savid S.A. In Germany room able to insurance cheaper loansexternally. Horizontes Orgánicos likewise provides short- ax loansmainly for purchase of inputs.1.3 Main factors that drove calculation growth and also conversion toorganic farmingSeveral external and internal factors added to thegrowth that organic manufacturing in the Dominican Republic, including: Market accessibility and high demand, specifically in Europe; High price premiums; eco-friendly concerns; availability of sources from the international ar to NGOs; Low push from black sigatoka in the situation of bananas; and Low usage of inputs.One of the key factors to be the ready sector for organicproduce at a time as soon as prices that conventional create were low. Furthermore,recent years have actually seen an increased awareness and also need for healthy food byconsumers in occurred countries leading to boosted demand. Determinants such asconcerns end mad cow disease, which has received high public in Europe havespurred growth. Essential produce additionally fetched a greater price top top the market, whichwas attractive because that farmers. An ext generally, concerns around the affect of highinput usage on the atmosphere have led to an boosted awareness that the need todevelop sustainable crop production practices. Organic farming has actually been promotedby both governmental and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) together a viablealternative. Versus this background, sources were readily obtainable to NGOsfor the promotion of essential agriculture. The climatic conditions in theDominican Republic to be favourable because that the breakthrough of necessary agriculture.For instance, development of bananas (the main export crop) was feasible because ofthe low push from black color sigatoka as much of the crop is get an impression in drier areaswhich execute not favour disease spread. Generally it is vital to note that manyof the little scale farmers were using few inputs before conversion come organicagriculture greatly for financial reasons. However, this also meant that theswitch to organic production did not need a significant shift in ingrained "badhabits" such together over-dependence top top pesticides. The timing of the advancement ofthe organic sector in the Dominican Republic to be perfect. From reasonably smallbeginning in the at an early stage 1990s, that was possible to attain rapid growth in thelatter part of the decade when demand accelerated because many an essential issuesincluding production and also marketing had been resolved.1.4 main initial constraintsWhile sectors for organic create have ongoing to grow,regular manufacturing of sufficient create of high top quality to satisfy demand hasbeen a major hurdle come marketing organic produce. The sector requires a steadyand reputable supply. Generally, farmers confront serious an obstacle to obtainfinancial resources for investment in organic agriculture. That is difficult formany farmers to acquire credit and in any type of case interest prices in the DominicanRepublic are exceptionally high. Over there is also a absence of default personnel toprovide technical knowledge and also support come farmers. The export sector requiresthat strict controls are followed and many farmers who previously never keptrecords essential to adopt new practices. Tiny producers were poorly organizedcreating severe logistical problems. The absence of neighborhood certificationorganizations which would certainly be well-known in developed markets intended that this hadto be done by external organizations. This is expensive and it would certainly beimpossible for numerous individual growers to afford the high cost. In some cases,there to be a society of reasonably intense intake usage and also a general tendency tolook for quick fix solutions, most of which to be incompatible through organicproduction. While many farmers have been crawl to embrace organic manufacturing foreconomic reasons, many have tho not embraced the approach as a method ofprotecting the environment.2. Institutions active in the organic sector at thenational and also local levels2.1 Farmer organizationsThere are numerous farmer associations and cooperatives which areusually arranged along chop themes. These differ in dimension from a couple of individualfarmers to numerous hundred. In general numerous of these institutions are weak andalthough it is widely recognized that they have the right to fulfil an important role, theindependent nature of countless Dominican Republic farmer precludes their rapiddevelopment. For the banana industry, Lopez (2000) lists the following: in Azua,Cooperativa Francisco del Rosario Sánchez, (about 112 members),Cooperativa san Vicente de Paul (about 65 members), Asociaciónde Productores de Bananas Orgánicos (about 140 members), others(about 380 members). In the northwest, Asociación de Laguna salada(about 15 members), Asociación de Amina (68 members) and also theAsociación de Productores Palo Verde (24 members). It isnoteworthy that the Cooperativa Francisco del Rosario Sánchez didat one allude market create directly. However, because being hit by HurricaneGeorge, the participating has no recovered. The Confederación deCacaocultores Dominicanos (CONACADO), a quasi federal government organization,brings together about 8 500 cocoa producer in nine regional associations and also 4000 coffee producers in eight regional blocks (Baldeyaque and also Guerrero, 1999).GRAN assists about 1 100 coffee producers in 17 associations.There are several ar groupings which room interested inorganic agriculture. Among the most notable is to be found in san Joséde Ocoa and also it concentrates mainly on vegetable production. The team has beenbrought together by a catholic priest, dad Quinn and also is reportedly makingtremendous progress. Although farmers in this ar are no formallycertified, their production system is widely recognized at the domestic levelwhere all their produce is marketed.2.2 federal government agenciesTwo main governmental agencies affiliated in organic productionare the set of farming and the Dominican Centre for Export Promotion(CEDOPEX). The room for farming Extension and also Training has since 2000embarked ~ above an wild project concentrated principally on necessary agriculturewith assistance from the Japanese international Cooperation company (JICA). Inaddition, because 1997, the to adjust in cooperation with JICA has brought outresearch top top organic production methods. Many notable to be the study to adaptthe Bocaschi composting strategy at the Costanza Horticultural ExperimentStation.2.3 Foreign and also international agencies (includingNGOs)There are a few international and also many local agencies involvedin the breakthrough of organic manufacturing in the Dominican Republic (Table 1).Many NGOs have concentrated on production aspects (technical aid andtraining). JICA in cooperation with the ministry of agriculture has undertakenresearch right into various aspects of necessary production and also is presently supportinga nation-wide expansion project. CEDAF and also JAD space well-establishedorganizations supporting research and also extension activities.

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Table 1: various other private/public nationwide or internationalagencies connected in organic productionAgency1Type that agencyActivityLocal AgenciesJADNGOResearch and extensionCEDAFNGOResearch, extension, coordinationGRANNGOExtension, marketing, financeADAONGOCoordination, plan supportFAMANGOTrainingLocal universitiesPublic/privateCapacity buildingInternational AgenciesJICADevelopment AssistanceResearch, extension, finance, marketingHELVETASDevelopment AssistanceCapacity building

1 check out Annex 2 for details.

3. National standards and regulations3.1 nationwide standardsThe to adjust of agriculture has set up a commission come developnational legislation. The board of directors is consisted of of various stakeholdersincluding to represent from both public and private institutions. The keydriving pressure for the advancement of national regulation is the need bythe european Union that providers of organic produce need national legislationby 2005. Recently, CONACADO has occurred guidelines for organic cocoa andcoffee production. This is a significant step front in the advancement ofnational standards.3.2 Certification and control of organicproductionStandards because that the residential market space non-existent and also thoseused have actually been imposed on an advertisement hoc communication based on an excellent farmingpractices. Thus, for example a professional shop will buy develop from a farmerassociated with San José de Ocoa ar group due to the fact that their reputationis fine known. Normally all export needs are regulated by the importingcountries.3.3 Certifiers operation in the countrySeveral agencies certify organic create in the DominicanRepublic. Yet BCS ÖKO-Garantie (Germany) controls about 90 percent ofall certification in the country. The firm has developed a nationwide officewith trained technological staff come facilitate activities. Therefore a certifier fromEurope only visits once a month. The establishment of strong national presenceand capacity has actually facilitated much more effective delivery of service and also opens scopefor breakthrough of a certification system for the neighborhood market.Other certifiers are: Demeter (Germany), FVO (United States),Imo regulate (Germany, Switzerland), Suolo Italia (Italy), Skal (Netherlands),IBB (Brazil), QAI (United States).4. Production of organic fruit andvegetables4.1 Products: varieties, acreage, quantities, season,locationThe key export plants are bananas, coffee, cocoa, mangoes,coconuts, sugar, lemons and also oranges, while vegetables are specifically importantfor the residential market. Details ~ above these plants are provided in Table 2. The growthin essential bananas as an export chop has been particularly remarkable, almostdoubling every year since 1997. Production during 1997, 1998, 1999 and also 2000 was,12 000, 20 000, 28 000 and 46 000 tonnes, respectively.

Table 2: The primary organic crops grown in the DominicanRepublicCropAcreageNo the FarmersNotesBanana1 125 ha1 725Grown mostly in the provinces of Azua, Valverde andMontecristiCocoa125 ha500Two main varieties grown Sánchez and Hispaniola accountingfor 96% and 4% that exports respectively 31 875 ha and also 8 500 producers. Get an impression in 9provinces.Coffee1 406 ha1 500Two varieties are grown, Typica and also Caturra audit for 80%and 20% of production respectively. Marketed mostly by CONACADO, HorizontesOrgánicos, Horizontes, Mercantiles, Miguel Melo CxA and GRAN. Grown in 9provinces.Orange??Mainly get an impressive in combination with other tree crops such ascocoaMango5251825-30 producers (80% for puree and also 20% marketed fresh)Lemon-*28 ha -Grown in Vega ProvinceCoconut394 ha345Approx. 300 producers. Get an impressive in Samana provinceSugar??Grown in one system in La Altagracia princePineapple?*23 haTwo key producers, Reno S.A v 17.5 ha and Plantaciones delNorte with 5.6 ha. The latter has plans come expand another 219 ha. Get an impression in theprovinces the Sánchez, Ramírez and Valverde

Source: BCS OKO Garantie (1999) other than those marked with an asterisk are acquired from reports in El Exportador (1999, No 115).

4.2 form of producers, farm yard size and landownershipOrganic manufacturing is brought out through individual family members whoare totally dependent on agriculture as well together commercial producers who havelarge holdings. The farm yard sizes vary from very small holdings of around one ha tolarge commercial farms. An instance of the size distribution of ranches sellingtheir produce through Savid S.A. Is given in Table 3.

Table 3: Size circulation of farms developing organic banana and selling with SAVID S.A. ar Percentage variety of farmers in each category small (1-5 ha) tool (6-40 ha) large (41-60 ha) north 40 40 20 south 80 20 Nil

4.3 work employed top top the farm and also genderissuesMost the the tiny farms (less than 2 ha), which are amajority, utilize household labour with just occasional employed labour at harvesttime. All other farms require consistent labour i beg your pardon comprises both men and women.Sixty percent of the work is Haitian.For a bulk of the small holder farmers, the entirety familyworks ~ above the farm. Typically the chop is viewed to belong to the men. Thereare very couple of women farmers, less than 2 percent in the case of those sellingtheir commodities through Horizontes Orgánicos and also this shows theposition nationally. There is some department of work in the instance of bananaswith males working mainly in the field and also women mainly in packing. That is notclear even if it is the same applies to other crops.4.4 manufacturing constraintsThere space several far-ranging constraints come organicproduction and these might vary indigenous one chop to another. Pest monitoring isgenerally a significant problem. In banana, regulate of yellow and also black sigatoka andcrown rot space seen as major constraints. In vegetable manufacturing whiteflies areregarded together the best constraint. Delivery of sufficient nutrients is alsoseen as a major problem mainly because of lack of organic product for composting.Availability that water because that irrigation and also maintenance of watering equipmentparticularly for banana production have the right to be a constraint. Lack of technicalknowledge and technical backup shows up to be a problem. Start-up expenses as wellas expenses for rehabilitation, an especially following the devastation of HurricaneGeorge, are a major constraint to production.4.5 role of producer organizationsGenerally, producer organizations have been really weak andtheir influence has to be limited. Few of the factors for this have actually been alluded toabove. However, together associations are seen as essential in stimulate to build acritical fixed of production capability and to allow for more effective access tocommon demands such as water for irrigation and technical knowledge. The higherlevel organizations such as CONACADO play crucial role in the totality rangeof activities from manufacturing to the market. This contains farmer organization,technical support, credit and actual marketing that produce. CONACADO has actually alsobeen involved in breakthrough of necessary regulations.4.6 Existing support to productionThe government has took on an aggressive project todevelop organic production nationally. The focus of the task is improvementof farmer training and also technical assistance. The activities under the projectwill it is in phased at different temporal and spatial scales. Initially the focuswill it is in on the regional level and will involve research study aimed in ~ demonstratingorganic manufacturing techniques. This will then be increased to the zonal andsub-zonal level once 125 show plots will certainly be established and also a cadre ofextensionists trained.Some the the exporting companies provide technical assistanceto farmers. For instance, EKOBAN, a subsidiary of Savid S.A. Has actually this together apriority activity. Other companies/organizations such together CONACADO, HorizontesOrgánicos, GRAN etc. Also carry out support because that extension. Variousother establishments are associated in capacity structure at different levels andthese have actually been disputed above. A few of the marketing companies also offerfinancial support to production, particularly for the acquisition ofinputs.There room at least 4 local private companies connected inproduction and also import of entry to it is provided the organic ar (CitrexDominicana, ECOCIBAO, BioLiga and also FAMA). They supply organicnutrients and also acceptable pest management interventions such as biologicalcontrol agents and also organic pesticides.5. Marketing organic fruit and vegetables5.1 residential marketsMany rural households consume food that is essentially"organic". However, in the contemporary sense of the term, there is a fledglingdomestic market consisting of consumers in the large cities and the touristindustry. Assets are sold straight by farmers at the markets. Return organicproduce may be offered at one and a half to 2 times the price the conventionalproduce, the general situation is the both are marketed at the same price. This isbecause the local market is no well organized and consumers are generally lessaware. The current volume of assets on the residential market is daunting toestimate, yet it is small.Although no details studies evaluate the development potential ofthe domestic market, anecdotal evidence suggests that that has massive scope forgrowth an especially if the trouble of quality and reliability of supply can beresolved. Need exists in the rapidly cultivation tourist industry as well as withthe neighborhood urban population which is coming to be increasingly health conscious. Inaddition, there is an urgent need to build regulations and mechanisms forcertifying and labelling create for the residential market. In order to increaselocal consumption, the set of agriculture with aid from JICA (JapanInternational help Agency), is creating a physical framework in Santo Domingoto be devoted to the sale of organic create to neighborhood consumers. Opinions onwhether or not this will generate interest and also increased consumption are varied.It has actually been argued that broadening distribution and sale of produce throughexisting retail outlets would have actually a an ext rapid impact. In addition, over there is agrowing team of consumer who obtain organic produce from specialist shops.However, this is still fairly a tiny component.5.2 Exports5.2.1 Products and quantities exportedThe main commodities exported space fresh bananas and also cocoa (Table4). However, there has been a regular increase in number of products tradedeach year and also this trend is meant to continue, particularly with tropicalfruits. That is also notable that some assets are traded in a semi processedform, such as mango puree and also concentrated juice. Based on figures indigenous SavidS.A, the value of few of the products may in truth be much greater than thosequoted by CEDOPEX (Jetta van den Berg pers. Comm). Therefore for instance based onthese figures, the worth of dried coconut was US$130,000 and US$110,000respectively for 1999 and also 2000. Because that fresh bananas the value was US$1.6 and 2.2million for the respective period, while because that mango puree, amounts exported in1999 and 2000 were 195 and 128 metric lots for a worth of US$195,000 and$176,000 respectively. The value of new mango exports in 2000 to be $211,000. Inview of the reality that Savid exports a huge proportion of several of theseproducts, your data is credible.

Source: CEDOPEX and current FOB (see Annex ns for details)

5.2.2 Marketing channelsThe marketing networks are sensibly well definedparticularly since of the require for certification. In the instance of bananas,products space sold directly through about five key exporting companies, through anexception of Plantaciones del Norte, i beg your pardon grows and also markets that is ownproduce. GRAN, a community advancement organization, has likewise been activelyinvolved in marketing produce. The key companies associated in fiddle of organicproduce from the Dominican Republic are noted in Table 5. The biggest one isSavid S.A i m sorry is concentrated mainly ~ above bananas but is affiliated in violin of mangoand coconuts together well.Table 5: Companies involved in export and also or handling oforganic produceCompany1ProductsAmerico Melo and Co. C.X.ACoffeeCaribbean fruitBananaCaribex DominicanaMango PureeConfederación Nacional de CacaocultoresCoffee, cocoa butterEcofair S.A Y/O Supliban S.A.BananasGrupo de Desarrollo RuralGreen CoffeeGrupo de Desarrollo landscape Nacional, Inc.CoffeeHorizontes Orgánicos C.X.ABananas, Coconut Oil, mangoes, coffee, cocoaPlantaciones del NorteBananas, pineappleProcesadora de Caña Orgánica, CruzVerdeSugar syrup, sugar, molassesReno, S.A.Fresh pineappleSavid S.A.Bananas, mangoes, coconuts

1See Annex 2 because that details.

5.2.3 nations of destinationThe variety of countries come which organic produce is exportedhas been increasing steadily. During the year 2000, assets were exported to atleast 21 countries in the Caribbean, north America, Europe and also Asia. End 80percent that the develop was exported come Europe. The main sectors by volume werethe unified Kingdom and also Belgium complied with by the united States, Germany, theNetherlands and also Italy in decreasing order (Figure 1 and Annex I). A significantshare that the assets shipped to Belgium were re-exported to various other EC countries.In state of variety of different products shipped, this ranged indigenous one come ten.Ten commodities were exported to the unified States and the Netherlands, eight toGermany. The number of products shipped to the united Kingdom, Belgium, Italy,Canada and also St. Young name ranged indigenous 4-5. The number of products in every othercountries ranged native 1-3.

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number 1. Destination by volume the organic commodities from the Dominican Republic throughout 2000

5.2.4 type of customersFor banana and also other fresh fruit, develop is sold straight toripeners or to supermarkets. Savid S.A. For instance sells most of its producein the uk to ripeners and also directly to supermarkets in Germany andSwitzerland. In Germany some create is marketed to "green shops".5.2.5 median FOB price and price differential withconventional productsThe mean FOB price the organic produce in 2000 is given inAnnex 1 if Table 6 (below) compares prices of organic develop andconventional create in 1999. Mangoes fetched the highest possible price premium whilethe price that organic green coffee was reduced than that of typical coffee.Bananas, which room the biggest traded commodity in regards to volume and also value,fetched a price premium the 46 percent. Based upon data indigenous Savid (Jetta van denBerg, pers. Comm.), the FOB prices of organic banana in 1999 and also 2000 wereUS$9.00 and $8.50 per box respectively. Prices of traditional bananas because that bothyears were US$6.50. Thus, approximated price premiums based upon these numbers were38.5 percent and also 30 percent respectively. For 2001, price premiums space in therange that 25-30 percent and also these are expected to fall to about 20 percent in2002. The prices because that fresh organic mango was US$4.50 per crate in 1999-2000 andthis dropped to US$4.00 however the price of essential mango puree has actually remained stablefor numerous years in ~ US$1.00 per Kg. For coconuts, greater prices to be realizedin 1999 (US$9.00) but the price has actually remained stable throughout 2000-01 at US$8.5 perbox. Clearly, there is a downward trend in the price of essential produce, withlower premiums gift realized.Table 6: A comparison of price premiums for organic andconventional develop during 1999 (data modified from Brechelt,2001)ProductOrganic (US$)Conventional (US$)Price premium %Fresh bananas267.30 every pallet182.4246.53Cocoa beans1491.76 per tonne1332.1711.98Green coffee3102.71 per tonne3248.18-4.48Cocoa butter3974.02 per tonne3600.1610.38Dry coconut169.98 per thousand fruits123.3037.86Mangoes747.18 every thousand fruits395.3888.98Mango pulp900.76 per tonne421.44113.73

5.2.6 Constraints come exportsThe in-country infrastructure is an excellent but transportation costscould be lessened if produce from the northern regions can be transport viaPuerto Plata rather of Santo Domingo. Numerous constraints to export arerecognized. room on ships have the right to be a constraint; devices at port is old and needs renovation; Competition specifically from main American producer (in the situation of bananas); poor promotion of organic develop from the Dominican Republic; High count on items such as fuel and also other inputs required for production; and also High start-up prices for tiny farmers.6. Prospects for rise in production andexportsThe potential for enhanced production the all plants anddiversification is enormous. Indeed, over there is currently a trend to boost theproduct range. The cultivation domestic market too as regional markets providesome potential an especially for vegetables. Indeed, that is envisaged that in theshort term, expansion of organic manufacturing will track global trends in demand.Thus 5-10 percent development is projected annually. Some of the significant challengesconcern production. These encompass production of enough product that highquality to fulfill demand, technical support for farmers, supplication ofaffordable credit, suitable shipping schedules and growing competition. Theorganic sector has benefited considerably from the truth that development tookplace in ~ the ideal time. For this reason by the mid-1990s, sufficient local info hadbeen generated worrying needs for production, marketing and other logisticsthat the sector had the ability to capitalise on present high demand.7. ConclusionsIn less than ten years, essential production has been expandedgreatly; come the level that that is currently a significant part the the economy. Clearlythe need for organic develop spurred growth yet the far-reaching role played bythe exclusive sector and particularly the exporting suppliers is remarkable.Indeed that is clear the while farmers could easily adopt organic practices,equally as lot attention should be payment to arising marketing systems as tothe deliver of technology. The market for essential produce proceeds to grow andthe scope for growth of production is therefore great (Haest, 2000;Sauvé, 2000).ReferencesBaldeyaque, J. And also Guerrero, H. (1999) A brief diagnosis aboutthe status of organic agriculture in the Dominican Republic. 111 pp.Brechelt, A. (2001) Commercialization and also future the Dominicanorganic products. Unpublished Report.Brechelt, A. (2000) essential agriculture. Technical overview No35. Centro para el Desarrollo Agropecuario y Forestal, Inc. Dominican Republic.36 pp.CEDOPEX (1999) El Exportador, June-December Issue, No 115.(Various articles on organic farming featured in this edition). 64pp.Haest, C. (2000) In essential Banana 2000: in the direction of an organicbanana initiative in the Caribbean. Report of the global workshop on theproduction and also marketing of organic bananas by smallholder farmers. 95-109pp.López, C. (2000) The Dominican Republic Experience. Inorganic Banana 2000: towards an necessary banana plan in the Caribbean.Report the the international workshop top top the production and also marketing that organicbananas through smallholder farmers. 67-70 pp.Ornes, H. (1987) neighborhood centres because that organic agriculture andappropriate modern technology in the Dominican Republic. Sustainable DevelopmentConference, 28-30 April 1987. London (UK), IIED. 15 pp.Sauvé, E. (2000) The phibìc American market: existing andfuture. In essential Banana 2000: towards an essential banana to plan in theCaribbean. Report the the international workshop top top the production and also marketingof essential bananas by smallholder farmers. 110-116 pp.Sauvé, E. (2000) The north American market for organicbananas: present and also future. In essential Banana 2000: towards an organic bananainitiative in the Caribbean. Report the the worldwide workshop ~ above theproduction and marketing of necessary bananas by smallholder farmers. 111-116pp.Van den Berg, J. (2001) an individual communication with theauthorAnnex IOrganic exports native the Dominican Republic: products,quantities, destination and FOB because that the year 1999-2000

Source: CEDOPEX 26 march 2001.