Covalent bonding occurs as soon as pairs of electrons are common by atoms. Atoms will covalently bond with various other atoms in order to gain an ext stability, i beg your pardon is obtained by developing a full electron shell. Through sharing their outer many (valence) electrons, atoms deserve to fill up their external electron shell and also gain stability. Nonmetals will readily form covalent binding with other nonmetals in order to achieve stability, and can form anywhere in between one to 3 covalent bonds with other nonmetals depending on how many valence electrons they posses. Although the is stated that atom share electrons once they form covalent bonds, they carry out not commonly share the electron equally.

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Only when two atoms of the exact same element type a covalent bond room the mutual electrons actually shared equally in between the atoms. Once atoms that different aspects share electrons with covalent bonding, the electron will be drawn more toward the atom through the higher electronegativity leading to a polar covalent bond. When contrasted to ionic compounds, covalent compound usually have a reduced melting and also boiling point, and have much less of a tendency to dissolve in water. Covalent compounds can be in a gas, liquid, or hard state and do no conduct electrical energy or warm well. The species of covalent bonds can be identified by looking at the Lewis dot structure of the molecule. For each molecule, over there are different names for pairs of electrons, depending if it is mutual or not. A pair the electrons the is shared between two atom is called a bond pair. A pair of electrons that is not shared in between two atom is called a lone pair.

Octet Rule

The Octet Rule needs all atoms in a molecule to have actually 8 valence electrons--either by sharing, losing or gaining electrons--to become stable. For Covalent bonds, atoms have tendency to share their electrons with each various other to accomplish the Octet Rule. It requires 8 electrons because that is the quantity of electrons needed to to fill a s- and also p- orbit (electron configuration); also known as a noble gas configuration. Each atom wants to become as secure as the noble gases that have their external valence covering filled because noble gases have a charge of 0. Although it is essential to remember the "magic number", 8, keep in mind that there are numerous Octet rule exceptions.

Example: as you deserve to see native the photo below, Phosphorus has actually only 5 electron in its external shell (bolded in red). Argon has actually a full of 8 electrons (bolded in red), which satisfies the Octet Rule. Phosphorus requirements to acquire 3 electrons to fulfill the Octet Rule. It wants to be favor Argon who has actually a full outer valence shell.



Below is a Lewis dot framework of Carbon dioxide demonstrating a dual bond. As you deserve to see from the photo below, Carbon dioxide has actually a total of 1 Carbon atom and also 2 Oxygen atoms. Every Oxygen atom has actually 6 valence electron whereas the Carbon atom only has actually 4 valence electrons. To meet the Octet Rule, Carbon requirements 4 an ext valence electrons. Because each Oxygen atom has actually 3 lone bag of electrons, they can each re-superstructure 1 pair the electrons through Carbon; together a result, pour it until it is full Carbon"s outer valence shell (Satisfying the Octet Rule).


Example 3: Acetylene

Below is a Lewis dot framework of Acetylene demonstrating a triple bond. As you deserve to see native the photo below, Acetylene has a complete of 2 Carbon atoms and 2 Hydrogen atoms. Each Hydrogen atom has actually 1 valence electron whereas each Carbon atom has actually 4 valence electrons. Each Carbon demands 4 more electrons and each Hydrogen needs 1 more electron. Hydrogen shares its just electron with Carbon to get a complete valence shell. Currently Carbon has actually 5 electrons. Since each Carbon atom has 5 electrons--1 solitary bond and also 3 unpaired electrons--the 2 Carbons have the right to share their unpaired electrons, forming a triple bond. Now all the atoms are happy v their complete outer valence shell.


Nonpolar Covalent Bond

A Nonpolar Covalent Bond is produced when atoms share your electrons equally. This commonly occurs once two atoms have comparable or the same electron affinity. The closer the worths of your electron affinity, the stronger the attraction. This occurs in gas molecules; likewise known together diatomic elements. Nonpolar covalent bonds have a comparable concept together polar covalent bonds; the atom with the higher electronegativity will attract away the electron indigenous the weaker one. Since this explain is true--if we use this come our diatomic molecules--all the atom will have actually the very same electronegativity due to the fact that they room the exact same kind the element; thus, the electronegativities will certainly cancel each other out and also will have a charge of 0 (i.e., a nonpolar covalent bond).

Examples the gas molecules that have actually a nonpolar covalent bond: Hydrogen gas atom, Nitrogen gas atoms, etc.

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As you have the right to see from the snapshot above, Hydrogen gas has a complete of 2 Hydrogen atoms. Each Hydrogen atom has 1 valence electron. Due to the fact that Hydrogen can only fit a max the 2 valence electron in its orbital, each Hydrogen atom only demands 1 electron. Each atom has actually 1 valence electron, therefore they can just share, offering each atom two electrons each.