Chapter 4. Society and Social Interaction
Figure 4.1. Sociologists study just how societies connect with the environment and how they usage technology. This Maasai village in Tanzania looks really different native a landscape Canadian town. (Photo courtesy that Guillaume Baviere/Wikimedia Commons)

Learning Objectives

4.1. Types of Societies

Describe the difference in between preindustrial, industrial, and postindustrial societiesUnderstand the duty of environment on preindustrial societiesUnderstand how technology impacts societal development

4.2. Theoretical Perspectives on Society

Describe Durkheim’s functionalist watch of modern-day societyUnderstand the an important sociology watch of modern societyExplain the difference in between Marx’s concept of alienation and Weber’s ide of rationalizationIdentify how feminists analysis the advance of society

4.3. Social Constructions that Reality

Understand the sociological ide of fact as a social constructDefine roles and describe their ar in people’s daily interactionsExplain how individuals current themselves and also perceive us in a society context

Introduction to society and society Interaction

Early in the morning, a group of male warriors creeps the end of the village and heads for the savannah. They must be mindful not to wake the various other members the the tribe, lest they it is in accosted through the ladies or elders. When they have actually regrouped ~ above the plains, the warriors start preparing for the hunt. The eldest members that the group pick the many qualified hunters, known as ilmeluaya, definition men who space not afraid of death. Warrior who space not selected room sent home in shame.

You are watching: Which of the following is not one of marx’s four types of alienation?

Once the pick group has actually been chosen, the warriors begin the hunt. Lock scour the levels for footprints or droppings, and search for thick bushes or tall termite mounds that can conceal their resting prey. The search deserve to take ten minute to ten hours, yet once a lion is found, the warriors easily move into place.

Selected hunters ring bells and also rattle the brush, forcing the lion away from its protected hiding spot. The score is to face the beast one-on-one on the open savannah. There will be no tip or cheating, simply warrior against warrior. If every goes together planned, the lion will certainly be brought down through a single spear.

When the warriors go back to the town with your trophy, the is the start of a weeklong celebration. Return the hunt need to be plan in secret, news of the warriors’ success diffusion quickly, and also all village members come to congratulate the victors. The warrior who wounded the lion an initial is honoured and given a nickname based on his accomplishment. Songs room sung around the warrior, and also from climate on he will be remembered and also acknowledged transparent the community, even amongst other tribes.

To the Maasai, lion searching is about more than food and also security. The is a method to combine the bond of community and also the hierarchy among the hunters. Disputes over strength are cleared up before the hunt, and also roles room reinforced in ~ the end, with the bravest warrior receiving the lion’s tail together a trophy (Maasai association 2011). Return Maasai culture is very different from modern-day Canada, both deserve to be seen as various ways of express the human need come cooperate and live together in order to survive.

4.1. Varieties of Societies

Figure 4.2. Maasai men are searching with shepherd’s staves and spears. Just how does modern technology influence a society’s day-to-day occupations? (Photo courtesy of Abir Anwar/flickr)

Maasai villagers, Iranians, Canadians—each is a society. But what walk this mean? exactly what is a society? In sociological terms, society refers to a group of human being who live in a definable territory and also share the exact same culture. Top top a wider scale, society consists that the people and institutions approximately us, our common beliefs, and our cultural ideas.

Sociologist Gerhard Lenski (1924–) defined societies in regards to their technical sophistication. As a culture advances, therefore does its usage of technology. Societies with rudimentary an innovation are at the mercy the the fluctuations of their environment, while industrialized societies have an ext control end the affect of your surroundings and thus build different cultural features. This distinction is so crucial that sociologists usually classify societies along a spectrum of their level that industrialization, native preindustrial to industrial to postindustrial.

Preindustrial Societies

Before the Industrial change and the widespread use of machines, societies were small, rural, and dependent greatly on neighborhood resources. Economic production was restricted to the quantity of work a person being might provide, and there were few devoted occupations. The very an initial occupation was the of hunter-gatherer.


Hunter-gatherer societies demonstrate the the strongest dependence ~ above the environment of the various varieties of preindustrial societies. As the basic structure of all human culture until around 10,000–12,000 year ago, these teams were based roughly kinship or tribes. Hunter-gatherers relied on your surroundings for survival—they pursued wild animals and foraged for uncultivated plants because that food. Once resources ended up being scarce, the team moved come a brand-new area to find sustenance, definition they to be nomadic. These societies were usual until several century ago, yet today only a couple of hundred continue to be in existence, such as indigenous Australian tribes periodically referred to as “aborigines,” or the Bambuti, a group of pygmy hunter-gatherers residing in the democratic Republic that Congo. Hunter-gatherer groups are quickly disappearing as the world’s population explodes.

See more: Mexican Man Pictures Of Mexican Men Stock Photos And Images, Mexican Man Stock Photos And Images


Changing conditions and adaptations led some cultures to count on the domestication of animals where circumstances permitted. Approximately 7,500 year ago, person societies started to recognize their capability to tame and also breed animals and to grow and also cultivate their very own plants. Pastoral societies count on the domestication of pets as a source for survival. Unlike previously hunter-gatherers that depended entirely on existing resources to remain alive, pastoral groups were able to each other livestock because that food, clothing, and transportation, creating a excess of goods. Herding, or pastoral, societies remained nomadic since they were required to follow their animals to fresh feeding grounds. Around the time the pastoral cultures emerged, dedicated occupations began to develop, and also societies commenced trade with neighborhood groups.